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Summary Report

EEGLE/KITES All-Hands Meeting
October 27-30, 1999
Minneapolis, MN

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Table of Contents

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Overall EEGLE/KITES Summary Report

The third annual "all-hands" EEGLE/KITES meeting was held at the Radisson Hotel and the Coffman Union on the University of Minnesota's Minneapolis campus. The workshop objectives were:

  1. Communication within and between the programs
  2. Communication to NOAA & NSF
  3. Summarizing findings to date
  4. Establishing sampling strategy(s) for the next field year: planned experiments, cruise details, etc
  5. Review by NSF/CoOP Steering Committee

Approximately 100 participants attended the workshop, including many students. Over 50 posters and a series of project "overviews" were delivered. Cruise plans for the 2000 field season were developed, and several working groups met to refine their plans for 2000 and beyond.

The format of the meeting was as follows:

Day 1 (October 28)
EEGLE:
Group meetings: discussed progress, status, issues, strategy for coming field year, and plans for modeling-measurement exercises.

Physical measurements and modeling (chaired by Dave Schwab)
Ecological processes and modeling (chaired by Wayne Gardner)
Sediment processes and modeling (chaired by Val Klump)

Prepare synthesis presentation for Plenary
Plenary with Group Presentations

KITES:
OS meeting
Ship planning
Spatial coverage
Discuss Saturday activities
Informal Science Exchange

Science exchange
Small groups:

  • Stratification changes: upwelling/downwelling/thermal bar (chaired by Elise Ralph and Jim Churchill)
  • Food web/Particle dynamics (chaired by Noel Urban)
  • Day 2 (October 29)

    All-Hands Overview
    Speakers:
        Mike Roman
        Larry Clark
        John Wickham
        Sarah Green
        Brian Eadie

    3 Poster Sessions containing 53 posters

    Day 3 (October 30)
    EEGLE:
    Group meetings: discussed sampling strategies/options, draft cruise schedules, improve modeling and measurement integration

    Modeling Group
    Cruise Planning Group
    Sediment Sampling Strategy Group

    EEGLE Plenary
    Discuss issues raised in morning sessions

    KITES:
    Group Meetings
    Data-model integration
    Ship planning: sampling in last field year, What critical data is missing, Does everyone have access to what they need?


    Next year's all-hands meeting will again include both EEGLE and KITES participants. The proposed format for that meeting is 2 or 3 half-hour overview presentations from EEGLE and KITES and 4 to 6 hours of posters from the PIs. The meeting will most likely last 3-4 days to allow for more interactions within and between the 2 major projects. It was suggested that next year's workshop convene at the Homestead Conference Center near Sleeping Bear Dunes in Michigan.


    EEGLE Components

    The remainder of this report will concentrate on the EEGLE components of the all-hands meeting.

    The EEGLE program is designed to examine the impacts of massive storm events in late winter-early spring on sediment resuspension and transport of particles and associated materials and on subsequent spring ecology. While it appears that the winter-spring storms occur annually, there is a large range in scale. As illustrated in figure 1, the 1999 event was much smaller than the very large 1998 event. The two images of AVHRR reflectance (channel 1 - channel 2) illustrate the approximate maximum of each year's event. A longer-term estimate of the scale of the event is illustrated by the yearly maximum of the 10-day running mean of winter-spring turbidity from the St Joseph, MI Water Treatment Plant. The last bar represents 1999 and shows it to be somewhat below the average. The 1998 bar is similar to 1973 and they are the largest events for this 39-year period. Other water intake (and wind/wave) data are being accumulated for similar long-term evaluations.

    1998 and 1999 Plume Images

    The relatively small 1999 event allows for an interesting contrast to the large 1998 event. During 1999, we've had successful survey cruises before, during and after the event, along with a number of process cruises. Water sample and Plankton Survey System (PSS) tows will continue on a monthly basis throughout the year. The table shows program activities in calendar years; the 3rd column is a snapshot of where we are now. There is one more field year, which should be similar to 1999.

    EEGLE Statistics from the web data base - October, 1999

      19971998Oct 24, 19992000
    Cruises83433Similar to '99
    Total Days22104147Similar to '99
     
    Water Samples12133219Similar to '99
    PSS Tows-2249Similar to '99
     
    Traps samples12205178391
    ROV Dives-120253Similar to '99
    Current meters-112728
    Drifter days-40350Similar to '99
     
    Papers & reports218?
    Presentations - Public11209?
    Presentations - Professional2624Spec Session at AGU-OSM
    Visits to EEGLE web-17,73022,425?

    Special Sessions at:

     


    Summary of the EEGLE Overview Presentation

    Program Goal: to create an integrated observational and numerical modeling program for the winter-spring resuspension event(s) and to assess their impact on the transport and transformation of BIMS and on lake ecology. Three fundamental hypotheses focus this program:

    Hypothesis 1: The plume is a result of the first winter-spring storm after ice-out and represents the resuspension of particulate materials (and associated constituents) that have been stored in the lake as surface sediment "floc" for a distribution of times, during which they have undergone differential diagenesis

    What have we learned so far?

    Results

    Future Plans

    Eight posters were presented on this topic:

    Bedford, K.W., and P. Chu. DEVELOPMENT OF LAKE MICHIGAN NOWCAST/FORECAST MODELING SYSTEM AND THE PROGRESS ON A SEDIMENT TRANSPORT MODEL

    Bogdon, J.J., K. Hornbuckle, and J.W.Budd. INCREASED ATMOSPHERIC DEPOSITION OF SOCs DUE TO LARGE-SCALE SEDIMENT RESUSPENSION IN SOUTHERN LAKE MICHIGAN.

    Chye, J.D., J. W. Budd, V. Ransibrahmanakul, D.Ullmann, P Cornillon, and A. Mariano. REMOTE SENSING OF THERMAL FRONTS AND PARTICLE DISTRIBUTIONS IN LAKE SUPERIOR AND SOUTHERN LAKE MICHIGAN

    Eadie, B.J., M.B. Lansing, A. Winkelman, C.Riley, and B. Giroux. BASIN-SCALE PARTICLE FLUX RESPONSES ASSOCIATED WITH EPISODIC EVENTS.

    Lesht, B. IN SITU OBSERVATIONS OF SEDIMENT RESUSPENSION IN DEPOSITIONAL AND NON-DEPOSITIONAL REGIONS OF SOUTHERN LAKE MICHIGAN.

    Robbins, J.A., D.N. Edgington, B.J. Eadie, N.R. Morehead, and R.W. Rood. ACCUMULATION OF PARTICLE-ASSOCIATED RADIONUCLIDES AT THE HIGH-DEPOSITION AREA IN SOUTHERN LAKE MICHIGAN.

    Waples, J., J.V.Klump, D.N. Edgington, K. Orlandini. TH-234 STUDIES OF SUSPENDED PARTICLE RESIDENCE TIMES IN NEARSHORE REGIONS OF SOUTHERN LAKE MICHIGAN.

    Warrington, D.S., J.W. Budd, and R.P. Stumpf. ESTIMATING AREAL EXTENT AND SUSPENDED SEDIMENT CONCENTRATIONS OF COASTAL PLUMES: APPLICATIONS OF SEAWIFS ALGORITHMS TO GREAT LAKES WATERS.

     

    Hypothesis 2: The forced, two-gyre vorticity wave response of the lake to episodic wind events, occasionally modified by stratification, is a major mechanism for nearshore-offshore transport of particulate matter and associated constituents in the Great Lakes.

    What have we learned so far?

    Physical Measurements Nine posters were presented on this topic:

    Beletsky, D. and D. Schwab. HYDRODYNAMIC AND SEDIMENT TRANSPORT MODELING OF MARCH 1998 RESUSPENSION EVENT.

    Ji, R., C. Chen, D. Schwab, D. Beletsky, J. W. Budd, T. H. Johengen, and G. L. Fahnenstiel. MODELING STUDIES OF THE ECOSYSTEM OF LAKE MICHIGAN: 1-D AND 3-D NUMERICAL EXPERIMENTS

    Lang, G.A. and D. J. Schwab. EEGLE DATABASE MANAGEMENT

    McCormick, M.J, R. Murthy, J. Saylor, and G, Miller. OFFSHORE AND LONGSHORE TRANSPORT MEASUREMENTS IN EEGLE.

    McCormick., M.J., G, Miller, C.R. Murthy, and J. Saylor. COASTAL FLOW STATISTICS FOR WINTER 1997-98 IN SOUTHEASTERN LAKE MICHIGAN"

    Neibauer, J. SOME RESULTS FROM MODELING THE COASTAL CROSS AND ALONG-SHORE FLUX IN LAKES SUPERIOR AND MICHIGAN.

    Roebber. P. SOME METEOROLOGICAL MODELING RESULTS FOR LAKE MICHIGAN AND LAKE SUPERIOR.

    Vesecky, J.F., L.A. Meadows, C.C.Teague, and Y. Fernandez. HF RADAR MEASUREMENTS OF NEAR-SURFACE CURRENTS DURING 1999 EPISODIC EVENTS.

    Yerubandi, R.C.R. and Raj Murthy. NEARSHORE PHYSICAL MEASURMENTS

     

    Hypothesis 3: Physical processes, (e.g. resuspension, turbulence) associated with the plume event are important in determining the nutrient and light climate, and in structuring the biological communities throughout the spring isothermal period, and in setting the conditions for the critical `spring bloom' period.

    What have we learned so far?

    Results Future Plans Twelve posters were presented on this topic:

    Agy, M., H. A. Vanderploeg, and T Johengen. NEARSHORE-OFFSHORE DIFFERENCES IN MESOZOOPLANKTON COMMUNITY STRUCTURE DURINGTHE RECURRENT COASTAL PLUME IN SOUTHERN LAKE MICHIGAN

    Biddanda, B. and J. Cotner. PLANKTON RESPIRATION AND CARBON FLUX THROUGH BACTERIOPLANKTON IN SOUTHERN LAKE MICHIGAN.

    Budd, J.W., V. Ransibrahmanakul, D.S. Warrington, and W.C. Kerfoot. EPISODIC EVENTS AND TROPHIC PULSES: ESTIMATING SURFACE CHLOROPHYLL CONCENTRATIONS USING REMOTELY SENSED IMAGERY.

    Bundy M.H., H. A. Vanderploeg, and P. Lavrentyev. MESOZOOPLANKTON GRAZING RELATIVE TO THE LAKE MICHIGAN RECURRENT COASTAL PLUME: THE ROLE OF PHYTOPLANKTON VS. MICROZOOPLANKTON PREY.

    Fahnenstiel, G.F., et al. SINGLE CELL MEASUREMENTS OF IMPORTANT PROCESSES IN EEGLE

    Johengen, T. and A. Winkelman. TEMPORAL TRENDS IN THE NEARSHORE-OFFSHORE DISTRIBUTION OF PARTICULATE MATTER AND NUTRIENTS IN SOUTHERN LAKE MICHIGAN IN RESPONSE TO THE RECURRENT COASTAL SEDIMENT PLUME.

    Julius, M. and Goad, L. INITIAL INVESTIGATION OF THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PERIODIC RESUSPENSION EVENTS AND DIATOM BLOOMS IN LAKE MICHIGAN.

    Kelly, K, S. Lohrenz, and G. Fahnenstiel. MICROPHOTOMETRIC ANALYSIS OF LIGHT ABSORPTION CHARACTERISTICS OF PHYTOPLANKTON ASSOCIATED WITH A RECURRENT COASTAL PLUME IN SUTHEASTERN LAKE MICHIGAN

    Kerfoot, W.C., C.S. Lorence, D. Enderson, and X. Ma. RESURRECTION ECOLOGY: THE ROLE OF EPISODIC EVENTS IN MAINTAINING GENETIC DIVERSITY IN SPECIES COMPOSITION OF ZOOPLANKTON COMMUNITIES.

    Lavrentyev, P. MICROZOOPLANKTON COMPOSITION AND DISTRIBUTION DURING A MAJOR EPISODIC EVENT IN LAKE MICHIGAN

    Lohrenz, S. E., G. Fahnenstiel, O.Schofield et al. DISTRIBUTIONS OF INHERENT OPTICAL PROPERTIES IN A RECURRENT COASTAL TURBIDITY PLUME IN SOUTHEASTEN LAKE MICHIGAN

    Vanderploeg, H., S. Ruberg, G. Lang, T. Johengen, M. Agy, and J. Liebig. SPATIAL AND TEMPORAL PATTERNS OF PLANKTON SEEN BY THE PLANKTON SURVEY SYSTEM: DOES THE RECURRENT COASTAL PLUME HAVE AN EFFECT?


    EEGLE Individual Session Reports

    PHYSICAL MEASUREMENTS & MODELING

    Participated: D. Beletsky, J. Budd, P. Chu, P. Healy, K. Hornebuckle, L. Meadows, K. Miners, M. Muny, P. Roebber, J. Saylor, D. Schwab, J. Vesecky, R.C.R Yerubandi. Chair : D. Schwab

    1. Physical measurements.

    Current and meteorological measurements (GLERL and CCIW)
    Pilot year measurements captured episodes of significant offshore flow during resuspension events. Full mooring array deployed in 1998-99 included SACM measurements in shallow water (6 out of 8 returned data in summer 1998, 3 out of 7 in fall 98- spring 99, currently 5 SACMs are deployed), VACM measurements in deep water (24 VACM s on 12 moorings), and ADCPs in the St. Joseph area (5 in deep water and 1 in shallow water). VACMs were not deployed until fall to minimize biofouling. The convergence zone tends to occur in northern part of array, therefore additional transect will be added in 1999-2000 deployment. Coastal meteorological stations deployed at Muskegon, St. Joseph, Michigan City, Kenosha, and Milwaukee. Coastal meteorological buoy (UM) operated during spring 1999. About 30-40 drifter tracks were collected in April 1998.

    HF Radar measurements (University of Michigan)
    The HF Radar measurements demonstrated feasibility for high resolution surface current mapping over freshwater with successful 45 day deployment of dual Doppler system at St. Joseph in March-April, 1999.

    Remote sensing (Michigan Technological University)
    Time-series of AVHRR reflectance, SeaWIFS reflectance and chlorophyll images from 1998- 99 show significant differences between surface reflectance and chlorophyll patterns.Chlorophyll shows both an offshore and mid-lake minimum.

    PCB Fluxes (University of Iowa)
    Analyses of organic pollutants from 6 cruises and over 400 air, water, and sediment samples from 1998-99 indicate that the southern Lake Michigan resuspension event results in significant net input of atmospheric pollutants in Lake Michigan by scouring dissolved organics from the water column and disrupting air/water equilibrium concentration balance.

    2. Modeling.

    Meteorological modeling (University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee)
    Accomplishments include operation of realtime forecast system and data archival since November 1998 and modeling of meteorology associated with March 1998 resuspension event. Plans include ongoing evaluation of model simulations during resuspension events, incorporating MM5 meteorological forecasts into GLFS hydrodynamic forecasts, and construction of meteorological climatology of resuspension events.

    Great Lakes Forecasting System and sediment transport modeling (Ohio State University)
    Nowcast-forecast system for Lake Michigan is now operational which is beneficial to all EEGLE participants. In addition, a coupled circulation-sediment transport model CH3D-SEDwas applied to Lake Michigan. The model was tested with 2 sediment classes. Currently, themodel does not account for sediment resuspension caused by waves. It will be later coupledwith state-of-the-art wave model WAM.

    Hydrodynamic and sediment transport modeling (GLERL)
    Developed linked circulation/wave/sediment transport modeling system. The system wasapplied to the March 1998 sediment resuspension event in Lake Michigan on a 2 km rectangular bathymetric grid. Circulation and wave model results were compared withavailable observation data. Results indicate qualitative agreement with observed currents and sediment deposition patterns. Sensitivity studies were conducted with various objectively analyzed winds (based on both nearest neighbor and natural neighbor techniques) and mesoscale meteorological model (MM5) winds.


    MODELING

    Participants: D.Beletsky, C.Chen, P.Chu, J.Niebauer, L.Meadows, P.Roebber, J.Rubao, J.Saylor, R.C.R.Yerubandi. Chair: D.Beletsky

    Brief overview of accomplishments in 1998-99:

    GLERL: Created a system of linked circulation, wave, and sediment transport models named GLMS - Great Lakes Modeling System. Circulation model is a Great Lakes version of the Princeton Ocean Model (POMGL). Wave model (WMGL) is 2D parametric model developed at GLERL. Sediment model (STMGL) is a quasi-3D model developed by Jing Lou (former NRC postdoc at GLERL). Ice transport model will be built later as extension of the existing POMGL code. The system was applied to the March 1998 sediment resuspension event in Lake Michigan on a 2-km rectangular bathymetric grid. The hydrodynamic model employs 20 sigma levels. Circulation and wave model results were compared with available observation data. Sensitivity studies were conducted with various objectively analyzed winds (based on both nearest neighbor and natural neighbor techniques) and mesoscale meteorological model (MM5) winds.

    OSU: Nowcast-forecast system for Lake Michigan is now operational which is beneficial to all EEGLE participants. In addition a coupled circulation-sediment transport model CH3D-SED was applied to Lake Michigan. CH3D-SED has an advantage over STMGL because it can include several classes of sediments (along with some other refinements). The model was tested with 2 sediment classes. Currently, the model does not account for sediment resuspension caused by waves. It was confirmed that a graduate student at OSU will begin working on data assimilation problem before 2000.

    UGA: Biological model was built as an extension of POMGL. It includes 8 components (Si, P, small and large phytoplankton and zooplankton, bacteria and detritus). The model was tested in a 1D version for 1994-95. No loading from sediment resuspension was included. Observations at 100 m depth station off Muskegon, MI were used to evaluate model performance. The model was also run for March 1998 episode in a 3D mode. Sediment concentration was derived from satellite images of surface reflectance calibrated with observed sediment concentration. This approach proved to be acceptable in early spring when the lake is well mixed and vertical variation of sediment concentration is small.

    UWM: The MM5 system is operational. Model output has been archived since fall 1998. Model output (on a 6 km grid) was used in sensitivity studies conducted with POMGL. Particular attention was paid to two cases of significant offshore transport in March 1998: the passage of a cold front and mesoscale atmospheric vortex. A coupled 2D physical-biological model was developed for a transect Racine, WI-Saugatuck, MI by J.Niebauer. The model employs 1.5-km grid, vertical resolution is 5m. The model is being used primarily for studies of short-term physical-biological interactions during upwelling-downwelling events.

    Plans for 1999-2000:

    Having a multi-year simulation as a goal, we will carry out March-April 1998 and March- April 1999 simulations using GLMS first. This will allow us to study interannual variability of resuspension events in southern Lake Michigan. Hydrodynamic and biological models will include river discharges information to study the importance of nutrient load from major rivers. Physical/biological simulations will be performed with objectively analyzed winds and with MM5 winds. Sediment concentration will be derived from satellite data. We expect CH3D-SED to be coupled with a state-of-the-art wave model (WAM) by summer 2000. That will allow us to use modeled sediment concentration in multi-year (1998-99) physical/biological model runs. Initially, modeled sediment concentration can be saved at OSU and transferred to UGA to be used as the biological model input. Eventually, the solution to this problem should be either to refine STMGL or to develop a work-station based version of SED (from CH3D-SED) to link it to other GLMS models. We are planning a physical- biological workshop at GLERL in summer 2000 to discuss this and other issues.


    ECOLOGICAL PROCESSES

    Participants: Marie Bundy, Jim Cotner, Tom Johengen, Wayne Gardner, Joann Cavaletto, Peter Lavrentyev, Megan Agy, Hank Vanderploeg, K. Kelly, Gary Fahnenstiel, Steve Lohrenz, Bopi Biddanda

    Major Needs

    Summary of Results for 1998-99 and Plans for 2000-01

    Zooplankton (inclusive of all groups)

    Accomplishments:
    Feeding studies of Calanoid adults and nauplii on phytoplankton and microzooplankton

  • Strong grazing pressure on ciliates and tintinnids (microzooplankton)
  • Selective grazing on >10mm phytoplankton community (Diaptomus), and 10-53mm (Limnocalanus)

    Plans:

  • Continue feeding studies: Diaptomus, Limnocalanus, adults and nauplii, cyclopoids (?) feeding on microzooplankton, phytoplankton, and possibly on HNAN

    Goals:

  • Provide Chen with useful data for biological model
  • Provide data on rate processes for linking microbial food web (MFW) with higher trophic levels. (Does high bacterial production ultimately enhance production in fish populations?)
  • Provide evidence for top down or bottom up control of MFW

    Microzooplankton Studies

    Results:

    Plans:

    Mesozooplankton Survey and Monitoring

    Results:

    Plans:

    Nutrients and Bacteria Studies

    Results:

    Plans:

    Optical Characterization Studies

    Results:

    Phytoplankton Studies

    Results:

    Tentative Cruise Schedule for FY2000:

    DatesShipActivities
    Feb 18-25GuardianPre-plume survey, Deploy water samplers
    Deploy HF radar buoy
    Mar 1 - Apr 5
    (On call for plume event)
    Guardian8-10 days for Plume survey (PSS, TSM, nuts, bacteria, Chl) and Zoop/MFW grazing experiments
    Mar 15 - Apr 5
    (Fixed dates)
    Laurentian20 days for Phytoplankton/Optics surveys and shore-based experiments
    May 15 - 25Guardian6-8 days for post-plume/fronts/spring bloom survey
    May 25 - Jun 5Laurentian5 days for Phyto/Optics in Lake Superior
    JuneLaurentian4 days for Plankton/Nutrient Survey
    5 days for Phyto/Optics
    JulyLaurentian4 days for Plankton/Nutrient Survey
    5 days for Phyto/Optics
    AugLaurentian4 days for Plankton/Nutrient Survey
    SepLaurentian4 days for Plankton/Nutrient Survey
    5 days for Phyto/Optics
    OctLaurentian4 days for Plankton/Nutrient Survey
    NovLaurentian4 days for Plankton/Nutrient Survey
    DecLaurentian4 days for Plankton/Nutrient Survey

    Modifications to previous sampling strategies for the Ecological Group

    Adding new transect off of New Buffalo to give us a resuspension impacted site without riverine influence on the southeastern side. This site corresponds to stations used by the Phyto/optics group.

    Drop Racine transect for the sake of cruise times (?)

    Add a cross-lake transect, connecting St. Joseph and Chicago or through offshore features, to better characterize gradients, and help ground truth satellite imagery.

    Have the Laurentian and Guardian operating within the same waters during the plume to facilitate cross-discipline comparisons and better integrate data for modelers.

    Adding shore based "mesocosm" experiments to examine the effects of sediment and river inputs on bio-optics, phytoplankton, bacteria, and nutrients. These experiments will facilitate activities of outside PI's working on fixed schedules and allow time-series measurements of a variety of biological processes related to particle/nutrient inputs.

    Inclusion of moored sequential water samplers to capture high frequency (2d) resolution of sediment/nutrient distributions.

    Ongoing Issues

    Group leader to promote better coordination among the ecological group. Improved integration with modelers, for defining data needs and timeliness of availability.


    SEDIMENT PROCESSES

    Participants: Barry Lesht, Margaret Lansing, Brian Eadie, John Robbins, Jim Waples, David Edgington, Kent Orlandini, Miao-Li Chang

    Phase I

    Phase II

    Action Items:


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