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Aquatic Insects of the Great Lakes
Diptera - Flies, Midges and Mosquitos

  

There are more species of aquatic Diptera than any other order, despite the fact that most Diptera are terrestrial.

Some Diptera larvae are common in the deep profundal benthic zones of the Great Lakes - others are restricted to littoral or tributary benthos.

Winged adults are sometimes associated with emergent macrophytes (e.g., wetlands) or in nearshore terrestrial habitats.

Keys to Aquatic Diptera

Pennak. 1978. Freshwater Invertebrates of the United States. Second Edition.

University of Michigan Dearborn "Identifying Aquatic Insects"

Guide to Aquatic Invertebrates of the Upper Midwest

Atlas of the Chironomid Midges(Class Insecta: Order Diptera: Family Chironomidae) Recorded at the Old Woman Creek National Estuarine Research Reserve& State Nature Preserve, Ohio. byNatalie J. Johnson and Kenneth A. KriegerWater Quality Laboratory, Heidelberg CollegeTiffin, Ohio, USA April 2005.

Digital Key to the Aquatic Insects of North Dakota

Note on juvenile stages - Pupae are inactive stages (e.g., hard case, translucent case or cocoon). Larvae are active stages. Larvae lack rudimentary wings and usually lack legs or are limited to prolegs or projections (usually other than 3 pairs). See also: globe indicates link to external web siteAn Introduction to Insect Life Cycles

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Diptera Species List

  • Suborder
    • Infraorder
      • Family
        • Subfamily
          • Tribe
            • Genus
              • Species - common name
  • SO Brachycera
    • Muscomorpha
      • Dolichopodidae (longlegged flies) X
      • Empididae (dance flies) XW SHEO
      • Ephydridae (shore flies) XR E
            • Hemerodromia sp. R
      • Sciomyzidae (marsh flies) X
            • Sepedon sp. X
      • Syrphidae (syrphid flies) X
    • Stratiomorpha
      • Stratiomyidae (soldier flies) X
            • Stratiomys sp. X
    • Tabanomorpha
      • Pelecorhynchidae (pelecorhynchid flies) X
            • Glutops sp. X
      • Tabanidae (deer flies) X
  • SO Nematocera
    • Bibionomorpha
      • Mycetophilidae (fungus gnats) X
      • Sciaridae (dark-winged fungus gnats) X
    • Culicomorpha
      • Ceratopogonidae (biting midges) XWRN SHEO
            • Atrichopogon sp. X
            • Bezzia sp. XH
            • Culicoides spp. R
            • Probezzia spp. XR
            • Sphaeromias sp. X
      • Chironomidae (midges) XWR(50spp.) LN12345 SM(27spp.)HEO
        • Chironiminae
          • Tribe Chironomini
            • Axarus spp. M N
            • Chironomus spp. XWRLN12 SMH*E*O
              • C. anthracinus U MHE
              • C. fluviatilis - gr. U WN SHMEO
              • C. halophilus HE
              • C. plumosus HE
              • C. semireductus N HE
              • C. thummi E
            • Cladopelma sp. XR H
            • Cryptochironomus spp. XWRLN1 SMHEO
              • C. cf. digitatus R H
              • C. eminentia H
              • C. fluviatilis H
              • C. cf. fulvus H
              • C. cf. rolli M H
            • Cryptotendipes spp. N E
            • Demeijerea X
            • Demicryptochironomus spp. WRN SHE
            • Dicrotendipes spp. XWRN SHEO
              • D. fumidus WN SHEO
              • D. modestus W HEO
              • D. neomodestus W HEO
              • D. nervosus W O
            • Dicroneomodestus sp. H
            • Endochironomus spp. XWRL SHEO
              • E. subtendens H
            • Glyptotendipes spp. XWRL HEO
            • Harnischia spp. N HE
            • Kiefferulus spp. XWN EO
              • K. dux W EO
            • Lenziella sp. H (aka Cladotanytarsus)
            • Microchironomus X
            • Microtendipes spp. WRN SHEO
              • M. pedellus H
            • Nilothauma spp. W SHO
            • Parachironomus spp. XWRN SMHEO
              • P. abortivus R
              • P. arcuatus H
            • Paracladopelma spp. WRN1234 SMHEO
              • P. camptolabis R MH
              • P. cf. nais H
              • P. udine MH
              • P. winnelli G N MHE
            • Paraluterborniella spp. XRN1 HEO
            • Paratanytarsus X
            • Paratendipes spp. WR SHEO
            • Phaenopsectra spp. WRN SHEO
            • Polypedilum spp. XWRN SMHEO
              • P. breviantennatum W HEO
              • P. fallax W SHEO
              • P. illinoense W SHEO
              • P. cf. halterale H
              • P. cf. laetum H
              • P. nereis H
              • P. cf. scalaenum M
              • P. scalaeum W SHEO
              • P. scalaneum W SHEO
              • P. simulans N HE
              • P. cf. tuberulum Z M
            • Robackia spp. WN SMH
              • R. demeijerei W SMH
            • Saetheria sp.
              • S. tylus WR SMHEO
            • Stichochironomus spp. XWN SHEO
            • Tribelos sp. XO2
            • Xenochironomus spp. R
          • Tribe Pseudochironomini
            • Pseudochironomus spp. WRLN SHEO
              • P. articaudus R
              • P. nr. fulviventris H
          • Tribe Tanytarsini
            • Cladotanytarsus sp. Z WRN SMHEO
              • C. mancus H
              • C. vanderwulpi H
            • Micropsectra spp. G WRN12345 SMHEO
            • Paratanytarsus spp. WRN SHO
            • Rheotanytarsus spp. W SHEO
            • Stempellina spp. WR SH
              • S. bausei R
            • Stempellinella spp. R H
            • Tanytarsus spp. WRN1 SMHEO X
            • Zavrelia spp. W1 SHO
          • Diamesinae
            • Cricotopus spp. N MHO
              • C. festivellus H
              • C. ornatus H
              • C. slyvestris H
            • Diamesa spp. WR SHEO
            • Monodiamesa (Monodiamesia) spp. WN SMHE
              • M. depictinata H
              • M. tuberculata N MHE
            • Pagastia spp. W SH
            • Potthastia (Potthasia) spp. WRLN SMHEO
              • P. longimanus (longimana) Z RLN MHE
            • Prodiamesa spp W H
            • Protanypus sp
              • P. ramosus S
          • Othocladiinae
            • Chaetocladius spp. W O
            • Corynoneura spp. XWR SHEO
              • C. lacustris R
              • C. lobata R
            • Cricotopus spp. XWR SHEO
              • C. bicinctus E
              • C. cylindraceus W HO
              • C. festivellus W SHEO
              • C. fuscus W O
              • C. sylvestris W O
              • C. tremulus W SHEO
              • C. trifascia W SHEO
              • C. vierriensis W H
            • Diplocladius spp. W O
            • Epoicocladius spp. W SHE
            • Eukiefferiella spp. W SHEO
            • Halocladius spp. W S
            • Heterotrissocladius spp. WRN12345 SMHEO
              • H. changi G N1 MHEO
              • H. oliveri G SMH
            • Hydrobaenus spp. X
              • H. pilipes RH
            • Krenosmittia spp. WS
            • Limnophyes spp. W O
            • Nanocladius spp. WR SHEO
            • Orthocladius spp. WRLN SMHEO
            • Paracladius sp.
              • P. cf.conversus W SH
            • Paracricotopus spp. W SE
            • Parakiefferiella spp. WRN SHE
            • Paraphaenocladius spp. XW SHO
            • Psectrocladius spp WRN SMHEO
              • P. psilopterus H
              • P. simulans Z M
            • Pseudosmittia spp. WR SHEO
            • Rheocricotopus spp. W O
            • Smittia spp. W O
            • Synorthocladius spp. W SH
              • S. semivirens R
            • Thienemanniella spp. WR SHO
            • Thienemannimyia sp. HO
            • Trissocladius spp. W SHEO
          • Tanypodinae
            • Ablabesmyia spp. XWR HEO
              • A. monilis H
            • Clinotanypus X
            • Coelotanypus sp X L E
            • Conchapelopia spp. RN O
            • Guttipelopia spp. W H
            • Hayesomyia sp.
              • H. senata H
            • Labrundinia spp. WR H
            • Larsia spp. XWR SH
            • Monopelopia spp. W H
            • Nilotanypus spp. W SH
            • Paramerina spp. W S
            • Procladius spp. Z XWRLN12 SMHEO
            • Tanypus spp. XWN MHO
              • T. neopunctipennis H
            • Thienemannimyia spp. WR SHEO
            • Zavrelimyia spp. R
        • Thaumaleidae (solitary midges)
            • Thaumalia sp. X
      • Culicidae (mosquitos) X
        • Anopheles sp. X
        • Mansonia sp. X
        • Uranotaenia sp. X
      • Chaoboridae (phantom midges) X
          • Chaoborus sp.
            • C. punctipennis X
      • Dixidae (midges) X
      • Simuliidae (black flies) W SO
    • Psychodomorpha
      • Psychodidae (moth flies)
          • Pericoma spp. W SHE
          • Psychoda spp.
    • Tipulomorpha
      • Tipulidae (crane flies) XWR S
          • Antocha spp. WR S

Taxonomy by ITIS

* (Dominant) based on:

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S (Lake Superior) based on:

M (Lake Michigan) based on combination of:

H (Lake Huron) based on:

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E (Lake Erie) based on:

O (Lake Ontario) based on:

X (Great Lakes coastal wetlands) based on:

W (wave zone = 0-2m) based on:

R (rocky habitats) based on: globe icon indicates a link to a non-NOAA siteBenthic Community Structure and Composition among rocky habitats in the Great Lakes and Keuka Lake, NY. 1987. Michael H. Winnell and David J. Jude. JGLR 13(1)3-17.

L (littoral) based on: globe icon indicates a link to a non-NOAA siteRelationships among zoobenthos, sediments, and organic matter in littoral zones of western Lake Erie and Saginaw Bay. 1983. Richard A. Cole and Diana L. Weigmann. JGLR 9(4)568-581.

N (nearshore) based on:

1 = 14-30m based on:

2 = 31-50m based on:Disruption of the benthic community in Lake Ontario. 2003. S.J. Lozano and T.F. Nalepa. in State of Lake Ontario (SOLO) -- Past, Present and Future. M Munawar (ed). Ecovision World Monograph Series. Aquatic Ecosystem Health and Management Society.

3 = 51-70m based on:Disruption of the benthic community in Lake Ontario. 2003. S.J. Lozano and T.F. Nalepa. in State of Lake Ontario (SOLO) -- Past, Present and Future. M Munawar (ed). Ecovision World Monograph Series. Aquatic Ecosystem Health and Management Society.

4 = 71-90m based on:Disruption of the benthic community in Lake Ontario. 2003. S.J. Lozano and T.F. Nalepa. in State of Lake Ontario (SOLO) -- Past, Present and Future. M Munawar (ed). Ecovision World Monograph Series. Aquatic Ecosystem Health and Management Society.

5 = >90m based on:Disruption of the benthic community in Lake Ontario. 2003. S.J. Lozano and T.F. Nalepa. in State of Lake Ontario (SOLO) -- Past, Present and Future. M Munawar (ed). Ecovision World Monograph Series. Aquatic Ecosystem Health and Management Society.

U (eutrophic indicator) based on:

Z (mesotrophic indicator) based on:

G (oligotrophic indicator) based on:

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Diptera Families

Dolichopodidae
Empididae
Ephydridae
Sciomyzidae

Stratomydidae pupa courtesy of Lucian Bartolini

LB

Syrphidae
Stratiomyidae
Tabanidae
Mycetophilidae
Sciaridae
Ceratopogonidae
Chironomidae
Ceratopogonidae larvae courtesy of Digital Key to the Aquatic Insects of North Dakota
Chironomid larvae.  GLERL photo.
GLERL
Ceratorpogonidae pupa courtesy of the Digital Key to the Aquatic Insects of North Dakota
chironomid pupa courtesy of University of Minnesota
UMN
Culicidae
Chaoboridae
Dixidae
Simuliidae

Culex larvae Courtesy of UM Dearborn Environmental Interpretive Center

EIC

Chaoborous punctipennis larvae.  Courtesy of USGS

USGS

Simulidae larvae courtesy of the Digital Key to the Aquatic Insects of North Dakota
Simulidae pupa courtesy of University of Minnesota
UMN
Psychodidae
Tipulidae
Tipulidae pupa courtesy of the University of Minnesota
UMN

 

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Links

Guide to Aquatic Invertebrates of the Upper Midwest

Aquatic Insect Interactive Verification Program - University of Minnesota

North American Dipterists Society

Aquatic Diptera of Michigan - References

 


  
 
 
   
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