ASSEL, R.A. Great Lakes ice cover, winter 1973-74. NOAA Technical Report ERL 325-GLERL-1, Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory, Ann Arbor, MI (COM-75-10981/9GI) 52 pp. (1974). ftp://ftp.glerl.noaa.gov/publications/tech_reports/tr-erl325-glerl-01.pdf
Twenty composite ice charts were produced from ice cover data received at the Lake Survey Center during the past winter. These charts illustrate estimated ice concentrations and distributions on the Great Lakes at weekly intervals from mid-December 1973 to the end of April 1974. In addition, 13 ice charts compiled from data collected by Lake Survey Center ice observers portray synoptic ice conditions on individual lakes and rivers. Freezing degree-day accumulations indicate the 1973-74 winter was near normal over the Great Lakes. Accumulations were near their seasonal maximum the end of February on southern portions of the Great Lakes and the end of March on northern portions. Extensive ice formation in protected shore areas and shallow parts of the Great Lakes was initiated by below normal temperatures the second half of December and first half of January. Above normal temperatures the second half of January retarded ice formation and caused significant loss of ice in some areas. Ice covers reached their maximum extent in February and were estimated to extend over 70 percent of Lake Superior, 20 percent of Lake Michigan, 65 percent of Lake Huron, 95 percent of Lake Erie, and 25 percent of Lake Ontario. Mild temperatures in early March resulted in rapid loss of ice on southern portions of the Great Lakes so that, by mid-March, they were virtually ice free. By mid-April, the bulk of the ice cover was gone on the northern portions of the Great Lakes as well. The only areas with extensive ice in mid-April were the west end of Lake Superior, various Lake Superior bays, and the North Channel in Lake Huron. Last reports of ice were made in late April.
AUBERT, E.J. IFYGL: Scientific overview. Proceedings, IFYGL Symposium, 55th Annual Meeting of the American Geophysical Union, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Rockville, MD, 8-21 (1974).
The International Field Year for the Great Lakes (IFYGL) is a joint United States-Canadian experimental field program designed to improve knowledge of the limnology, hydrology, and meteorology of Lake Ontario and the Ontario basin. This improved knowledge will provide a basis for better management of Great Lakes resources and environmentally sensitive activities. Major accomplishments to date include the preparation of a comprehensive four-volume IFYGL Technical Plan and, in accordance with this plan, a comprehensive data collection effort from April 1972 to March 1973. Processing of these data, both in the United States and Canada, is well underway, and some analytical results have begun to appear. Work on some 160 United States and Canadian individual IFYGL tasks is progressing and will be completed within the next 4 years. These tasks serve to support six major projects: terrestrial water balance, lake meteorology-atmospheric water balance, atmospheric boundary layer, energy balance, water movement, and biology and chemistry. The status of these projects and some research highlights are discussed.
BENNETT, E.B., and J.H. SAYLOR. IFYGL water movement program--A post field work review. Proceedings, IFYGL Symposium, 55th Annual Meeting of the American Geophysical Union, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Rockville, MD, 102-127 (1974).
Studies of water movement carried out on Lake Ontario between April 1972 and March 1973, which constitute one of the programs of the International Field Year on the Great Lakes, are described. The scientific basis and planning for these projects, which include investigations of surface waves, turbulent diffusion, upwelling, and horizontal current flow, are reviewed, as are the relationships of these investigations to those of internal waves in the lake, and to those of other IFYGL programs. The execution of the water movement studies, together with estimates of data recovery and, where available, results are discussed. Continuing efforts to match observations with the results predicted by analytical or numerical models are described.
BOLSENGA, S.J. Estimating energy budget components to determine Lake Huron evaporation. Water Resources Research 11(5):661-666 (1975).
Evaporation is estimated for Lake Huron by the energy budget method and compared to available mass transfer estimates. Data were from representative shoreline station measurements and vessel cruise measurements. Agreement between evaporation by the energy budget and by mass transfer was reasonable from February through July with the exception of May when measurement of the heat content was a problem. For the remainder of the year the disparity is marked. The principal difficulty encountered was the lack of meteorological measurements on the lake or adequate techniques to extrapolate the quantities from shoreline data. Quantitative monthly values for each component in the budget equation are the first published for Lake Huron and one of the few sets available for the Great Lakes.
Braster, R.E., S.C. CHAPRA, and G.A. Nossa. Documentation for SNSIM1/2. A computer program for the steady-state water quality simulation of a stream network. Environmental Protection Agency, New York, (1975).
The formulation of a mathematical model of any system is greatly determined by two factors: the nature of the system itself and the purposes and perspective of the investigator. The modeler must strike a balance between objective reality and the subjectvitiy of his needs to attain a successful analysis. This problem is further compounded when dealing with the high complexity of the natural world.
CHAPRA, S.C., and G.A. Nossa. A computer program for the modeling of water quality parameters in steady-state multi-dimensional natural aquatic systems. Documentation for HAR03. Environmental Protection Agency, New York, (1974).
Definition: HAR03 is a computer program which can be used to model the steady-state distribution of water quality variables for multi-dimensional bodies of water. The technique underlying the program is based on the conservation of mass and up to two variables reacting in a feed forward fashion with first order kinetics may be modeled. Computer: HAR03 has been designed for an IBM 370 computer, requires approximately 184 K of core to compile and was written for a FORTRAN IV G Level compiler. Application: HAR03 has been designed with the Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) - Dissolved Oxygen system in mind.With minor modification the program may be used to model other variables which are analogous to this system such as chlorides, polyphosphate - orthophosphate, coliform bacteria, etc. At present, HAR03 can accommodate up to 100 completely mixed segments.
DANEK, L.J., and J.H. SAYLOR. Saginaw Bay water circulation. NOAA Technical Report ERL 359-GLERL 6, (PB-254-075/5GI) 50 pp. (1975).
A combination of Lagrangian measurements and fixed current meter moorings during the summer of 1974 were used to determine the circulation patterns of Saginaw Bay. Because the bay is shallow, the water responds rapidly to wind changes. Distinct circulation patterns were determined for a southwest wind and a northeast wind. Speeds measured in the inner bay are on the order of 7 cm s-1 whereas in the outer bay the speeds average closer to 11 cm s-1. A typical inner and outer bay is 3700 m3 s-1 for winds parallel to the axis of the bay, but winds perpendicular to the axis of the bay cause little water to be exchanged. The driving forces that control the circulation patterns in the bay are also examined. The water motions in the inner bay are driven almost solely by wind stress whereas the outer bay is also influenced by the circulation of Lake Huron and by the geometry of the area. Inertial oscillations are the most dominant periodic component of the flow. Seiche motions of Lake Huron and the bay itself were detected, but they are of little importance in determining the gross circulation of the bay.
Gehrs, C.W., and A. ROBERTSON. Use of life tables in analyzing the dynamics of copepod populations. Ecology 56:665-672 (1975).
The population parameters have been characterized for the generations that developed during a complete reproduction year of a population of the calanoid copepod Diaptomus clavipes Schacht. A model is presented to calculate the numbers of each of the various instars of a copepod produced during any previous interval of time. Life tables were constructed from laboratory data and for the five generations of the 1971 field population as an aid in studying the population dynamics. Successful reproduction in the field population occurred from mid-March until mid-October. Development time increased for successive instars of the same generation. All generations had similarly shaped survivorship curves and there was a progressively lower rate of survival in successive generations. This lower survival rate was related to decreasing survival during the early naupliar stages. Survivorship of adults was characterized by a rectangular curve. Greatest mortality rates occurred during the egg to fourth naupliar interval (N-IV) and in the sixth naupliar stage (N-VI). Critical controlling factors in this population appear to be those which affect either survivorship in the interval between egg and N-IV or reproductive activity of adults.
GREAT LAKES ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH LABORATORY. Annual Report for the Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory, FY 1975. Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory, Ann Arbor, MI, 40 pp. (1975).
GREAT LAKES ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH LABORATORY. Technical plan for the Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory. Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory, Ann Arbor, MI, 147 pp. (1975).
*HUANG, J.C.K. Ocean/atmosphere dynamically coupled model for climatic study. In Monograph IV, Department of Transportation, Climatic Impact Assessment Program, Washington, DC, (6-210)-(6-216) (1974).
Not available from GLERL.
HUANG, J.C.K., and J.M. Park. Effective cloudiness derived from ocean buoy data. Journal of Applied Meteorology 14:240-246 (1974). https://www.glerl.noaa.gov/pubs/fulltext/1975/19750001.pdf
There is a need in the study of the dynamic aspects of radiation balance at the sea surface for cloud cover information on a finer scale than is presently available, especially for analyses of historic data. Although cloud cover is difficult to obtain without a human observer, or more recently without a satellite, insolation can be readily measured and recorded by an untended instrument. Cloud cover can then be estimated by using well-known formulas usually intended for calculating insolation from known cloud cover. An example of such a computation on a daily basis is presented here using insolation data from deep-moored instrument stations in the North Pacific Ocean. The effective cloudiness thus obtained is used to calculate the radiation balance at the sea surface.
Ischinger, L.S., and T.F. NALEPA. Freshwater macroinvertebrates. Journal of Water Pollution Control Federation 47(6):1520-1538 (1975).
JENKINS, C.F. The International Field Year for the Great Lakes. Great Lakes Basin Commission, Communicator 6:5-6 (1975).
LESHKEVICH, G.A. Lake Superior bathythermograph data. NOAA Technical Memorandum ERL GLERL-3, Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory, Ann Arbor, MI (PB-248-826/0GI) 71 pp. (1975).
Water temperature profiles for a longitudinal cross section of Lake Superior were collected aboard vessels operated by the United States Steel Corporation during the 1972-73 and 1973-74 winter seasons. Seven cruises were made during this period, four during the first winter season and three during the second. This information was collected as part of the Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory's participation in the program to examine the feasibility of an extended navigation season on the Great Lakes and the St. Lawrence Seaway.
LIU, P.C. Duration-limited wave spectra in Lake Ontario during the 1972 Hurricane Agnes (IFYGL). Proceedings, 17th Conference on Great Lakes Research, International Association for Great Lakes Research, Ann Arbor, MI, 435-444 (1974).
LIU, P.C., and T.A. Kessenich. Surface wave data recorded in Lake Ontario during IFYGL. NOAA Technical Memorandum ERL GLERL-2, Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory, Ann Arbor, MI (PB-247-121/7GI) 197 pp. (1975).
This report presents surface wave data recorded by the four waverider buoys deployed along the main axis of Lake Ontario during 1972. The presentation is given in the form of daily summaries of hourly wave statistics generated from a computerized wave data analysis system. In addition to providing systematic information on Lake Ontario surface waves, this report can also be used as an index to digitized wave data for further studies.
LIU, P.C., and R.J. Robbins. Wave data analyses at GLERL. Proceedings, International Symposium on Ocean Wave Measurement and Analysis, New Orleans, LA, September 9-11, 1974. American Society of Civil Engineers, New York, 64-73 (1974).
The Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory has been engaged in the measurement of Great Lakes waves since 1964. Three types of wave gages have been used: staff gages, pressure gages, and waveriders. Much of the wave data has been recorded on analog magnetic tape at a recording speed of 1.27 cm/sec (0.5 in/sec). Two systems have been employed to analyze the large volume of data collected over the years. A spectrum analyuzer system uses a Federal Scientific Ubiquitous UA-10 Spectrum Analyzer and 1010 Spectrum Averager as main components to perform real-time spectrum analysis and plots the results on a X-Y plotter. A computer digitization and analysis system first digitizes the analog wave tape with an analog-to-digital converter configured as a peripheral device to a computer and subsequently processes the digital data through the computer. The processing includes editing, calibration, time correlation, analyses, and report generation. Additioanl analyses can be made using the generated report as an index to select interesting periods for detailed studies. The implementation of these two systems at GLERL has facilitated effective and expeditious analysis of collected wave data for utilization by scientists and engineers in the Great Lakes region.
*NALEPA, T.F., and L.S. Ischinger. Sediment oxygen demand studies on the Androscoggin, Presumpscot, and Penobscot Rivers, Maine, May and July 1974. Report to Region I, EPA, and State of Maine prepared by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, National Field Investigations Center, Boston, MA, (1974).
*NALEPA, T.F., and L.S. Ischinger. Sediment oxygen demand studies on the Chowan River, North Carolina, December 1974. Report to State of North Carolina prepared by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, National Field Investigation Center, Boston, MA, (1974).
NORTON, D.C. Lake Ontario Basin: Overland precipitation. NOAA Technical Memorandum ERL GLERL-1, Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory, Ann Arbor, MI (COM-75-10589/0GI) 12 pp. (1974).
Park, R.A., R.U. O'Neill, J.A. Bloomfield, H.H. Shugart, R.S. Booth, R.A. Goldstein, J.B. Mankin, J.F. Kounce, D. SCAVIA, M.S. Adams, L.S. Clescer, E.M. Colon, E.H. Dettman, J.A. Joppes, and D.D. Huff. A generalized model for simulating lake ecosystems. Journal of Simulation 23:33-50 (1974).
CLEAN, a generalized lake-ecosystem model with strong ecological realism, has been developed in response to one aspect of the growing need for models suitable for helping man to manage his environment. The model currently consists of twenty-eight ordinary differential equations which represent approximately sixteen compartments, including attached aquatic plants, phytoplankton, zooplankton, bottom-dwelling aquatic insects, fish, suspended organic matter, decomposers, sediments, and nutrients. These equations can be linked in any meaningful combination to simulate a given point in a lake (a separate model for lake circulation is available to represent spatial variations).
Park, R.A., D. SCAVIA, and N.H. Clesceri. CLEANER, the Lake George model. In Ecological Modeling in a Management Framework, C.S. Russell (ed.). Resources for the Future, Inc., Washington, DC, 49-82 (1975).
CLEANER, an ecosystem model based on the International Biological Program model CLEAN, has a number of characteristics useful to environmental management. It represents functionalphysiologic and ecologic relationships for major compartments of the ecosystem, with disaggregation of trophic levels appropriate for studying competition among dissimilar forms. It exhibits good calibration and has few data requirements, facilitating transferability. It is programmed for use in interactive mode from remote terminals, with user-oriented output - including transformation of biomass values to turbidity, scum, and taste and odor indicators. It is currently implemented as a one-dimensional model without physical mixing terms, but it can be coupled with existing hydrodynamic models. As a research tool CLEANER can be used to test hypotheses concerning complex ecosystem linkages and to guide data collection. As a management tool it can be used to provide scenarios and to extract bivariate relationships between pollutants and ecosystem effects. The model can be used by citizen groups as an educational tool, by advisory groups as a means of examining environmental trade-offs, and by regulatory agencies as a means of determining sensitivities and evaluating environmental impacts. CLEANER will eventually be coupled with adjunct models that predict nutrient loadings and tourist response, permitting simulation of long-range environmental, social and economic impacts.
PICKETT, R.L., and S. BERMICK. Comparison of airborne radiation thermometer and buoy temperature measurements. IFYGL Bulletin 14:76 (1975).
PICKETT, R.L., and F.P. RICHARDS. Comparison of July currents from adjacent United States and Canadian buoys. IFYGL Bulletin 11:107-110 (1974).
PICKETT, R.L., and F.P. RICHARDS. Editing procedures for analysis of buoy and tower data. IFYGL Bulletin 11:105-106 (1974).
**PINSAK, A.P. (Editor). Proceedings, Workshop on Great Lakes Environmental Research Priority Initiatives, Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory, Ann Arbor, MI, October 10-11, 1974. Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory, Ann Arbor, MI, 129 (1975).
PINSAK, A.P. Federal agency programs: NOAA--Department of Commerce. Proceedings, Recession Rate Workshop, Ann Arbor, MI, December 5-6, 1974. Great Lakes Basin Commission, Ann Arbor, MI, 55-63 (1975).
*PINSAK, A.P., and T.L. MEYER. Internal report for Maumee River Basin level B study. Great Lakes Basin Commission, Ann Arbor, MI, (1975).
Not available at GLERL.
PINSAK, A.P., and G.K. Rodgers. Energy balance of Lake Ontario. Proceedings, IFYGL Symposium, 55th Annual Meeting of the American Geophysical Union, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Rockville, MD, 86-101 (1974).
The energy budget technique is a fundamental factor in understanding effect of a water body on the atmosphere and surrounding area and effect of atmosphere on the water body. Comprehensive IFYGL field observations provided an opportunity to define in detail properties of a large dimictic lake, evaluate terms of the energy budget equation, develop a heat balance for Lake Ontario and compare evaporation estimates with those from other techniques. As radiation from the sun is a primary heat source, a heat budget equation considering incident and reflected solar and infrared radiation, heat content, sensible and latent heat flux and net advection was used. A radiation model utilizing computed meteorological variables empirically verified is used to produce daily sums for radiation terms. Heat storage determinations utilize temperature profiles from weekly ship surveys. Energy flux estimates apply data to Bowen Ratio computations. Net advection is based on inflow, outflow, runoff, precipitation and industrial discharge. Areal ice observations in conjunction with an ice formation, growth, and decay model will be applied. This factor varies but is significant for heat storage and radiation flux estimates in temperature zones. Preliminary evaporation estimates compare with those utilizing other techniques but sensitivity of each term requires testing and verification.
QUINN, F.H. Lake Huron beginning-of-month water levels and monthly rates of change of storage. NOAA Technical Report ERL 348-GLERL 4, Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory, Ann Arbor, MI (PB-249-921/8GI) 27 pp. (1975).
This report describes the results of a study of Lake Huron beginning-of-month water level and monthly changes of storage. The study established that the number and distribution of water level gages in the presently existing gage network is adequate for the computation of beginning-of-month water levels and changes of storage for the period 1900-1973 are listed for use in scientific and planning studies.
QUINN, F.H. Lake Michigan beginning-of-month water levels and monthly rates of change of storage. NOAA Technical Report ERL 326-GLERL 2, Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory, Ann Arbor, MI (COM-75-10895/1) 32 pp. (1975).
This report describes the results of a study of Lake Michigan beginning-of-month water levels and monthly changes of storage. The study established that the number and distribution of water level gages in the presently existing gage network is adequate for the computation of beginning-of-month water levels. Computed beginning-of-month water levels and changes of storage for the period 1900-1972 are listed for use in scientific and planning studies.
RAO, D.B. Numerical studies of the response of lakes to atmospheric forcing. Proceedings, Second World Congress, International Water Resources Association, Vol. III, International Water Resources Association, New Delhi, 369-375 (1975).
Three applications of numerical methods to solve the hydrodynamical equations for a lake are presented. These applications take into account the irregular horizontal configuration of the lake, its topography, earth's rotation and atmospheric forcing. The specific problems considered are the storm surge prediction and the steady state circulation, both in a homogeneous Lake Ontario and the time-dependent motions in a two-layered Lake Ontario. Examples of results are shown and briefly discussed.
RAO, D.B. Transient response of shallow enclosed basins using the method of normal modes. Inland Waters Directorate, Canada Centre for Inland Waters, Scientific Series No. 38, 30 pp. (1974).
Predicting the two-dimensional forced response (or the storm surge) of an arbitrary water body is discussed in terms of the normal mode expansion technique. Such an approach eliminates space dependence from the governing equations. Time-dependent aspects of the problem may then be solved either by a numerical evaluation of a formal integral solution, whch involves the normal mode functions and the wind stress field, or by a direct finite-difference integration in time along by some explicit or implicit schemes. Hence the use of normal mode expansion procedure eliminates a complete numerical integration of the problem on a space-time finite difference grid, and offers certain advantages in avoiding such problems as computational stability, grid-dispersion, etc. A method is described for constructing the quasi-static normal modes for an arbitrary rotating basin and different methods are presented for obtaining the general solution for the forced response. Applciation of some of these procedures to two ideal cases is then considered. One case deals with the response of a non-rotating rectangular basin of uniform depth to a semi-infinite stress band propogating across the basin in a given direction; the other deals with the effect of an instantaneously imposed wind stress on a rotating rectangular basin of uniform depth.
ROBERTSON, A. A new species of Diaptomus (copepoda, calonoida) from Oklahoma and Texas. American Midland Naturalist 93:206-214 (1975).
A new species of calanoid copepod, Diaptomus (Aglao-diaptomus) kingsburyae, is described from temporary waters in Oklahoma and Texas. The new species is closely related to D. clavipes and D. clavipoides. It is separated from these species by diagnostic features of the netasomal wings, the antennules, and the fifth legs. A general description of the armature on all the appendages of this species is presented. An examination of specimens of D. clavipes showed that this description also applies to this species.
ROBERTSON, A., F.C. Elder, and T.T. Davies. IFYGL chemical intercomparisons (IFYGL). Proceedings, 17th conference on Great Lakes Research, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada, August 12-14, 1974. International Association for Great Lakes Research, Ann Arbor, 682-696 (1974).
During the IFYGL program three separate intercomparisons of chemical determinations were conducted. In the first study, samples of known concentration for a number of properties were sent for analysis to several laboratories. Statistical evaluation of the results from these determinations showed that, except for sodium, there was little evidence that the means for the laboratory determinations differed from the comparable known concentrations . However, the results of this study did indicate that, for most of the properties, there were systematic differences among the results from the participants. This work also indicated that the random error component of the variance increased when the analyses were carried out at different times or, in other words, that the systematic errors in the various laboratories were not constant with time.
In the second study, samples were obtained at four depths at each of two stations and each sample was split into four parts. For one of these a number of determinations were conducted immediately on the vessel. The other three subsamples were frozen and sent to three of the major IFYGL laboratories, and the same analyses were conducted as aboard the ship. This procedure was carried out five different times. Analysis of the results showed statistically significant differences among the results from the three laboratories for many of the parameters. Analyses carried out by the same agency on the frozen and unfrozen subsamples shoed freezing also significantly affected many of the results. In the third study, several of the vessels involved in IFYGL were brought together and similar sampling programs were carried out on each. Series of replicate samples were obtained by each vessel and one of the replicates was analyzed by each of the three participating laboratories. The data for this work indicate that differences in sampling methods among the vessels probably have a relatively minor effect on the results obtained. However, substantial differences in the results from the different laboratories for a number of parameters were again found.
**ROBERTSON, A., C.W. Gehrs, B.D. Hardin, and G.W. Hunt. Culturing and ecology of Diaptomus clavipes and Cyclops vernalis. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Ecological Research Series EPA-660/3-74-006, Washington, DC, 226 pp. (1974).
This report presents the results of studies undertaken to develop a method of maintaining healthy, self-propagating, laboratory cultures of the freshwater calanoid copepod, Diaptomus clavipes. Recommendations are given as to the conditions of container size, type of culture medium, light conditions, temperature conditions, food type and quantity, frequency of replacement medium, and amount of disturbance suggested for culturing. The results of a study dealing with effects of temperature on certain reproductive attributes of this species are presented. Temperature is shown to affect the longevity of the adult females as well as the size, carrying time, and probably total lifetime production of clutches. The results of this study indicate that certain of the reproductive attributes of the females are affected by the temperature of early life as well as the acclimation temperature. The report includes the results from a study on the dynamics of a filed population of D. Calvipes. The durations of the various life history stages were estimated both from laboratory and field data. Life tables were constructed for the spring generation of this population as well as all generations in a reproductive year combined. The stages of greatest relative mortality were identified. The report also presents recommendations for culturing the cyclopoid copepod, Cyclops vernalis, and the results of studies concerning the effects of temperature on certain reproductive attributes of this species. Temperature is shown to affect longevity of the adult female, egg carrying duration, clutch size, and egg development rate. This report was submitted in fulfillment of Project Number 158-250, Grant Number 18050 ELT by the Office of Research Administration, University of Oklahoma, under the (partial) sponsorship of the Environmental Protection Agency. Work was completed as of June 1973.
*Rooney, J.P., and S.C. CHAPRA. Water quality analysis of the Raritan Bay system. Report prepared for the Water Programs Branch, Environmental Programs Division, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency--Region II, (1974).
Not available from GLERL.
Sackett, W.M., C.W. Poag, and B.J. EADIE. Kerogen recycling in the Ross Sea, Antarctica. Science 185:1045-1047 (1974).
Analyses of the stable isotopes of the organic carbon and microscopic examination of the sediment particles suggest that up to 90 percent of the organic matter in Ross Sea sediments is derived from the igneous and ancient metamorphic and sedimentary rocks that are being glacially eroded on the Antarctic continent and transported seaward.
SAYLOR, J.H. Nearshore bottom stability in relation to changing lake levels. Proceedings, Technical Conference on Lake Michigan Shoreland Planning, Chicago, IL, May 24-25, 1973. Lake Michigan Federation, Chicago, IL, 42-55 (1974).
SCAVIA, D., J.A. Bloomfield, J.S. Fisher, J.A. Nagy, and R.A. Park. Documentation of CLEANX: A generalized model for simulating the open-water ecosystems of lakes. Simulation 23:51-56 (1974).
In the lead article in this issue, CLEAN, a generalized lake ecosystem model, was described by the 25 investigators in the Eastern Deciduous Forest Biome, U.S. International Biological Program, who were responsible for its formulation. Because of the interest in this model, the team that implemented it as a user-oriented interactive package has consented to make the software available through one of the authors, Richard A. Park, or from SCS. The version described here is CLEANX; it is used to simulate the open-water (pelagic) portions of the lakes, as described in the previous paper.
VANDERPLOEG, H.A., R.S. Booth, and F.H. Clark. A specific activity and concentration model applied to cesium movement in an oligotrophic lake. In Mineral Cycling in Southeastern Ecosystems, F.G. Howell, J. B. Gentry, and M.H. Smith (eds.). U.S. Energy Research and Development Administration, 142-165. (1975).
A linear systems-analysis model was derived to simulate the time-dependent dynamics of specific activity and concentration of radionuclides in aquatic systems. Transfer coefficients were determined for movement of 137Cs in the components of an oligotrophic lake. These coefficients were defined in terms of basic environmental and ecological data so that the model can be applied to a wide variety of sites. Simulations with a model that ignored sediment--water interactions predicted much higher 137Cs specific activities in the lake water and biota than did those with the complete model. Comparing 137Cs concentrations predicted by the model with concentrations reported for the biota of an experimentally contaminated oligotrophic lake indicated that the transfer coefficients derived for the biota are adequate.
VANDERPLOEG, H.A., and J.R. Kercher. Effects of limnological variables on bioaccumulation factors. In Radiation Research: Biomedical, Chemical, and Physical Perspectives, O.F. Nygaard, H. I. Adler, and W.K. Sinclair (eds.). Academic Press, Inc., New York, 1192-1204 (1975).
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