GLERL Publications Abstracts: FY 1980

Publications List Key
Capitalized names represent GLERL authors.
* = Not available from GLERL.
** = Available in GLERL Library only.

Almazan, J.A., and R.L. PICKETT. Water temperature. In IFYGL Atlas--Lake Ontario summary data, C.F. Jenkins (ed.). Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory, Ann Arbor, MI, 200-244 (1980).

No abstract.

ASSEL, R.A. Great Lakes degree-day and temperature summaries and norms, 1897-1977. NOAA Data Report ERL GLERL-15, Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory, Ann Arbor, MI (PB80-195977) 113 pp. (1980).

Daily maximum and minimum air temperatures at 25 locations on the perimeter of the Great Lakes for the period 1897 to 1977 were used to generate long term means of daily air temperatures and freezing and thawing degree-days (FDD's and TDD's). In addition daily, weekly, and monthly FDD's and daily TDD's were calculated for the 81 summer and 80 winter seasons between 1897 and 1977. This report describes the computational procedure and presents graphs and tables resulting from this analysis.

ASSEL, R.A. Maximum freezing degree-days as a winter severity index for the Great Lakes, 1897-1977. Monthly Weather Review 108(9):1440-1445 (1980). https://www.glerl.noaa.gov/pubs/fulltext/1980/19800001.pdf

General regional and temporal trends in maximum freezing degree-days (FDD's) are identified for the shore zone of the Great Lakes Basin for the 80 winter periods 1897-1977. The cumulative frequency distribution of FDD's at each of 25 locations is used to define winter severity for the 80 winters. Graphs, contour maps and tabulations are used to summarize and portray the spatial and temporal distribution of FDD's and mild and severe winter categories of winter severity.

ASSEL, R.A., D.E. Boyce, B.H. DeWitt, J.H. Wartha, and F.A. Keyes. Summary of Great Lakes weather and ice conditions, winter 1977-78. NOAA Technical Memorandum ERL GLERL-26, Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory, Ann Arbor, MI (PB80-179203) (1979). https://www.glerl.noaa.gov/pubs/tech_reports/glerl-026/

The winter of 1977-78 was the 12th coldest since 1850. The north-westerly flow aloft during this winter directed anticyclonic centers to the west and south of the Great Lakes Region, bringing the greatest negative air temperature departure from normal ever recorded on the southern lakes. Ice began forming in the shallows of the Great Lakes in late November. Lake St. Clair was virtually frozen over by early January. The remainder of the Great Lakes neared maximum areal ice extent from mid-February to early March: Lake Superior was 82 percent ice covered, Lake Michigan 52 percent, Lake Huron 89 percent, Lake Erie 100 percent, and Lake Ontario 57 percent. Spring breakup began in mid-March. The bulk of the ice was gone by April 26, but ice was observed as late as May 11 in eastern Lake Erie. A shipping strike in fall 1977, combined with an early winter, provided the catalyst to create massive traffic tie-ups in the St. Lawrence Seaway in December. A total of 138 shipping companies participated in extended season operations, and shipping on the upper lakes continued throughout the season without interruption. The demands placed on Coast Guard icebreakers were the greatest ever, and total cargo tonnage assisted was about double the previous season.

BELL, G.L. Eastern Lake Ontario and Oswego and Rochester Harbors chemical and physical characteristics data for 1971. NOAA Data Report ERL GLERL-8, Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory, Ann Arbor, MI (PB80-185135) 12 pp. (1980).

Water samples at standard depths, bottom sediment and meteorological data were collected in Eastern Lake Ontario at established stations in the course of seven cruises during the 1971 open-water season. There were 14 one-day cruises at Oswego and 9 at Rochester Harbor. The sampling program and analytical methods are described. Chemical characteristics of the water and bottom sediment are listed by cruise for each station and sampling depth. Wind, wave, and sediment data are listed by cruise for each station. The statistical summaries showing lake-wide means, standard deviations, and sample sizes of selected variables are presented by depth for each lake cruise period.

BELL, G.L. Eastern Lake Superior chemical and physical characteristics data for 1968. NOAA Data Report ERL GLERL-5, Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory, Ann Arbor, MI (PB80-185101) 10 pp. (1980).

Water samples at standard depths, bottom sediment and meteorological data were collected in Eastern Lake Superior at established stations in the course of seven lake cruises and four St. Marys River cruises during the 1968 open-water season. The sampling program and analytical methods are described. Chemical characteristics of the water and bottom sediment are listed by cruise for each station and sampling depth. Wind, wave, and sediment data are listed by cruise for each station. The statistical summaries showing lakewide means, standard deviations and sample sizes of selected variables are presented by depth for each cruise period.

BELL, G.L. Lake Erie chemical and physical characteristics data for 1967. NOAA Data Report ERL GLERL-4, Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory, Ann Arbor, MI (PB80-184179) 9 pp. (1980).

Water samples at standard depths, bottom sediment and meteorological data were collected in Lake Erie at established stations in the course of three cruises during the 1967 open-water season. The sampling program and analytical methods are described. Chemical characteristics of the water and bottom sediment are listed by cruise for each station and sampling depth. Wind, wave, and sediment biological oxygen demand (BOD) data are listed by cruise for each station. The statistical summaries showing lake-wide means, standard deviations, and sample sizes of selected variables are presented by depth for each cruise period.

BELL, G.L. Lake Erie chemical and physical characteristics data for 1965. NOAA Data Report ERL GLERL-2, Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory, Ann Arbor, MI (PB80-185143) 9 pp. (1980). https://www.glerl.noaa.gov/pubs/tech_reports/glerl-002/dr-002.pdf

Water samples at standard depths, bottom sediment, and meteorological data were collected in Lake Erie at established stations in the course of nine cruises during the 1965 open-water season. The sampling program and analytical methods are described. Chemical characteristics of the water and bottom sediment are listed by cruise for each station and sampling depth. Wind and wave data are listed by cruise for each station. The statistical summaries showing lake-wide means, standard deviations, and sample sizes of selected variables are presented by-depth for each cruise period.

BELL, G.L. Lake Huron chemical and physical characteristics data for 1966. NOAA Data Report ERL GLERL-3, Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory, Ann Arbor, MI (PB80-184187) 10 pp. (1980).

Water samples at standard depths, bottom sediment, and meteorological data were collected in Lake Huron at established stations in the course of eight cruises during the 1966 open-water season. The sampling program and analytical methods are described. Chemical characteristics of the water and bottom sediment are listed by cruise for each station and sampling depth. Wind and wave data are listed by cruise for each station. The statistical summaries showing lake-wide means, standard deviations, and sample sizes of selected variables are presented by depth for each cruise period.

BELL, G.L. Lake Ontario chemical and physical characteristics data for 1972. NOAA Data Report ERL GLERL-9, Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory, Ann Arbor, MI (PB80-184161) 8 pp. (1980). https://www.glerl.noaa.gov/pubs/tech_reports/glerl-009/dr-009.pdf

Water samples at standard depths, were collected in Lake Ontario at established stations in the course of four cruises during the 1972 open-water season. The sampling program and analytical methods are described. Chemical characteristics of the water are listed by cruise for each station and sampling depth. The statistical summaries showing lake-wide means, standard deviations, and sample sizes of selected variables are presented by depth for each cruise period.

BELL, G.L. Lake St. Clair and St. Clair and Detroit Rivers chemical and physical characteristics data for 1974. NOAA Data Report ERL GLERL-12, Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory, Ann Arbor, MI (PB80-185119) 10 pp. (1980).

Water samples at standard depths, bottom sediment, and meteorological data were collected in Lake St. Clair and in the St. Clair and Detroit Rivers at established stations in the course of nine lake and river cruises during the 1974 open-water season. The sampling program and analytical methods are described. Chemical characteristics of the water and bottom sediment are listed by cruise for each station and sampling depth. Wind, wave, and sediment data are listed by cruise for each station. The statistical summaries showing lake-wide means, standard deviations, and sample sizes of selected variables are presented by depth for each cruise period.

BELL, G.L. Northern Lake Michigan chemical and physical characteristics data for 1970. NOAA Data Report ERL GLERL-7, Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory, Ann Arbor, MI (PB80-185127) 10 pp. (1980).

Water samples at standard depths, bottom sediment, and meteorological data were collected in Northern Lake Michigan at established stations in the course of 12 cruises during the 1970 open-water season. The sampling program and analytical methods are described. Chemical characteristics of the water and bottom sediment are listed by cruise for each station and sampling depth. Wind, wave, and sediment data are listed by cruise for each station. The statistical summaries showing lake-wide means, standard deviations', and sample sizes of selected variables are presented by depth for each cruise period.

BELL, G.L. Oswego Harbor, New York, chemical and physical characteristics data for 1972. NOAA Data Report ERL GLERL-10, Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory, Ann Arbor, MI (PB80-185168) 10 pp. (1980).

Water samples at standard depths, bottom sediment, and meteorological data were collected in Oswego Harbor, NY, at established stations in the course of 33 one-day harbor cruises during the 1972 open-water season. The sampling program and analytical methods are described. Chemical characteristics of the water and bottom sediment are listed by cruise for each station and sampling depth. Wind, wave, and sediment data are listed by cruise for each station.

BELL, G.L. Southern Lake Michigan chemical and physical characteristics data for 1975. NOAA Data Report ERL GLERL-13, Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory, Ann Arbor, MI (PB80-185184) 24 pp. (1980).

Water samples at standard depths, bottom sediment, and meteorological data were collected at established stations in Southern Lake Michigan, in six harbors, and at one nearshore site during the 1975 open-water season. There were 5 lake cruises and 9 to 11 one-day cruises at each harbor. The sampling programs and analytical methods are described. Chemical characteristics of the water and of the bottom sediment sampled during one cruise are listed by cruise for each station and sampling depth. Wind, wave, and sediment data are listed by cruise for each station. The statistical summaries showing lake-wide means, standard deviations, and sample sizes of selected variables are presented by depth for each lake cruise period. These means do not include the harbor data.

BELL, G.L. Straits of Mackinac chemical and physical characteristics data for 1973. NOAA Data Report ERL GLERL-11, Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory, Ann Arbor (PB80-185176) 11 pp. (1980).

Water samples at standard depths, bottom sediment, and meteorological data were collected in the Straits of Mackinac and Northern Lake Huron at established stations in the course of 94 lake cruises during the 1973 open-water season. The sampling program and analytical methods are described. Chemical characteristics of the water and bottom sediment are listed by cruise for each station and sampling depth. Wind, wave, and sediment data are listed by cruise for each station. The statistical summaries showing lake-wide means, standard deviations, and sample sizes of selected variables are presented by depth for each cruise period.

BELL, G.L. Western Lake Superior chemical and physical characteristics data for 1969. NOAA Data Report ERL GLERL-6, Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory, Ann Arbor, MI (PB80-185150) 10 pp. (1980).

Water samples at standard depths, bottom sediment and meteorological data were collected in Western Lake Superior at established stations in the course of 11 cruises during the 1969 open-water season. The sampling program and analytical methods are described. Chemical characteristics of the water and bottom sediment are listed by cruise for each station and sampling depth. Wind, wave, and sediment data are listed by cruise for each station. The statistical summaries showing lake-wide means, standard deviations, and sample sizes of selected variables are presented by depth for each cruise period.

BOLSENGA, S.J. Determining overwater precipitation from overland data: The methodological controversy analyzed. Journal of Great Lakes Research 5:301-311 (1979). https://www.glerl.noaa.gov/pubs/fulltext/1979/19790009.pdf

Accurate determination of overwater precipitation from shoreline data in large lakes is critical to operational hydrology. Overlake precipitation has been recorded by standard precipitation gages located on islands and man-made structures on various occasions over the last 50 years. Those readings are then related to shoreline readings by lake/land ratios. In the absence of overwater data, the rations are applied to shoreline data to obtain overwater precipitation estimates. Recent studies indicate that the lake-land differences observed by such techniques are smaller than probable gage catch errors and that the differences are not statistically significant. Alternative methods for measuring or estimating overwater precipitation are recommended to determine whether or not new, operationally useful lake/land rations can be provided. Initial costs of some of these programs, such as radar observations, would be high, but they might be discontinued after sufficient confidence in the accuracy of new ratios was gained. It is, of course, possible that any set of ratios might vary from lake to lake necessitating individual programs for each lake. It is also possible that varying regional precipitation patterns over time would necessitate recalculation of the ratios. Either of these situations might indicate that solution to the lake-land precipitation problem is not economically feasible.

BOLSENGA, S.J. New observations on the daily variations of natural ice albedo. NOAA Technical Memorandum ERL GLERL-27, Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory, Ann Arbor, MI (PB81-132789) 36 pp. (1980). https://www.glerl.noaa.gov/pubs/tech_reports/glerl-027/

No abstract.

BOYD, J.D. Metalimnetic oxygen minima in Lake Ontario, 1972. Journal of Great Lakes Research 6(2):95-100 (1980).

Dissolved oxygen profiles taken in lake Ontario in 1972 indicate the presence of a distinct and persistent metalimnetic oxygen minimum during the stratified season. Evidence indicates the phenomenon occurred in previous years as well. The depth and magnitude of the minimum were closely related to the thermocline depth and strength of stratification. Lowest minimum values in 1972 occurred in early to mid September and were 8.6 mg/l dissolved oxygen and 82% saturation. Offshore the minimum decreased from west to east across the lake and was lesser in magnitude nearshore and in the northeast. During the nonstratified period oxygen concentrations remained relatively constant with depth at approximately saturated values.

CHAMBERS, R.L., and B.J. EADIE. Nearshore chemistry in the vicinity of the Grand River, Michigan. NOAA Technical Memorandum ERL GLERL-28, Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory, Ann Arbor, MI (PB81-132821) 28 pp. (1980). https://www.glerl.noaa.gov/pubs/tech_reports/glerl-028/

The impact on nearshore water chemistry and bottom sediments of the input from the Grand River, Mich., is assessed. The Grand River is the largest tributary flowing into Lake Michigan and a major contributor of several noxious substances. During the spring peak flows, as much as 10 percent of the annual total phosphorus and 9 percent of the total suspended matter can be loaded to the lake. Riverine polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's), zinc, nickel, and lead were found to be above the International Joint Commission recommended levels for aquatic health. Nearshore sediment chemistry reflects the dominance of the longshore component of the river plume, which is generally confined to a 10-km2 area around the river's mouth. Seasonal patterns of phosphorus:carbon and carbon:nitrogen in water and sediment samples are presented. Spatial distributions of the variables examined indicate that there are two significant phases (dissolved and particulate) and three transport regions (surface microlayer, thermocline, and nepheloid) in which the material moves from the river to the open lake.

*CHAMBERS, R.L., B.J. EADIE, and D.B. RAO. Role of nepheloid layers in the cycling of particulate matter. Coastal Oceanography and Climatological News 2:32-33 (1980).

No abstract.

CHAPRA, S.C. Application of the phosphorus loading concept to the Great Lakes. In Phosphorus Management Strategies for Lakes, R.C. Loehr, C. S. Martin, and W. Rast (eds.). Ann Arbor Science, Ann Arbor, MI, 135-152 (1979).

No abstract.

CHAPRA, S.C. Simulation of recent and projected total phosphorus trends in Lake Ontario. Journal of Great Lakes Research 6(2):101-112 (1980). https://www.glerl.noaa.gov/pubs/fulltext/1980/19800006.pdf

Recent trends (1965 through l978) of total phosphorus were analyzed with a time-variable, nutrient budget model of Lake Ontario. Future conditions were also simulated to estimate the effect of anticipated control measures on the lake's water quality. The analysis suggests that recent improvements in Lake Ontario's total phosphorus concentration are attributable to point source reductions due to detergent limitations and waste treatment by the Province of Ontario and the State of New York. Projections show that present point source controls will maintain the lake at the upper level of mesotrophy (15-20 mgP/L) to the year 2000, whereas the absence of controls would result in entrophy (~30 mgP/L). Further indications are that some diffuse source reduction may be required if oligotrophy (<10 mgP/L) is the ultimate goal and that Lake Ontario's fate is closely related to that of Lake Erie. An attempt is made to assess the effect of model uncertainty and phosphorus availability on the projections. In general, the inclusion of uncertainty indicates that more stringent load reductions will be needed to meet water quality objectives with greater than 50% certainty. Inclusion of availability tends to improve prospects for lake restoration and to enhance point as opposed to diffuse source controls.

CHAPRA, S.C., and K.H. Reckhow. Expressing the phosphorus loading concept in probabilistic terms. Journal of the Fisheries Research Board Canada 36(2):225-229 (1979).

No abstract.

CHAPRA, S.C., and W.C. SONZOGNI. Great Lakes total phosphorus budget for the mid-1970's. Journal of Water Pollution Control Federation 51:2524-2533 (1979).

No abstract.

DERECKI, J.A. Evaporation from Lake Superior. NOAA Technical Memorandum ERL GLERL-29, Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory, Ann Arbor, MI (PB81-141079) 60 pp. (1980). https://www.glerl.noaa.gov/pubs/tech_reports/glerl-029/

Lake Superior monthly evaporation was determined for individual years of a 34-year period, 1942-75, by the water budget and-mass transfer methods. Because of data limitations, these two methods represent the only practical approaches for determining Lake Superior evaporation; however, each determination contains some important reservations, and the independent duplication of estimates permits verification of results. Evaporation values determined by the two methods are in reasonably good agreement, for both the seasonal distribution and the annual total, with a resulting long term annual value of approximately 500 mm. The mass transfer estimates were obtained from the available land-based meteorological data adjusted to overwater conditions, which use land to lake adjustments derived on Lake Ontario during the International Field Year for the Great Lakes. Because of extensive ice cover, the overwater mass transfer results were also adjusted for the effects of ice cover during winter. The ice-cover adjustment reduced the average annual overwater evaporation by 13 percent and agreed much better with the water budget seasonal distribution and annual values.

DERECKI, J.A. Note: Estimates of Lake St. Clair evaporation. Journal of Great Lakes Research 5(2):216-220 (1979). https://www.glerl.noaa.gov/pubs/fulltext/1979/19790008.pdf

Monthly evaporation from Lake St. Clair was determined for individual years of a 26-year period, 1950-75, by the mass transfer method applied to available land-based data adjusted to overwater conditions. Because of extensive ice cover on the lake, the overwater mass transfer results were adjusted for the effect of ice cover during winter. The ice-cover adjustment reduced the average annual evaporation by 100 mm to 750 mm. The mass transfer method is the only technique that permits operational evaporation estimates from this lake with presently available data and it is also the approach most amenable to future improvements.

DERECKI, J.A., and A.J. POTOK. Regional runoff simulation for southeast Michigan. Water Resources Bulletin 15(5):1418-1429 (1979). https://www.glerl.noaa.gov/pubs/fulltext/1979/19790012.pdf

The feasibility of simulating monthly runoff for southeast Michigan, which comprises four major river basins, was evaluated with the Streamflow Synthesis and Reservoir Regulation watershed model. The evaluation covered a 13-year period (1961-73), which encompassed a complete runoff cycle. Results indicate it is feasible to simulate monthly runoff volumes on a regional scale with a single equivalent watershed by using daily precipitation and temperature data. Simulation of regional flows appears particularly attractive for the Great Lakes basin, since the basin consists of many relatively small watersheds. This method also appears promising for development of monthly runoff forecasts by employing average monthly meteorological data distributed on a daily basis. Tests of six-month runoff forecasts show relatively small deterioration with time and offer considerable improvement over climatology.

DeWitt, B.H., D.F. Kahlbaum, D.G. Baker, J.H. Wartha, F.A. Keyes, D.E. Boyce, F.H. QUINN, R.A. ASSEL, A. Baker-Blocker, and K.M. Kurdziel. Summary of Great Lakes weather and ice conditions, winter 1978-79. NOAA Technical Memorandum ERL GLERL-31, Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory, Ann Arbor, MI (PB80-179203) 123 pp. (1980). https://www.glerl.noaa.gov/pubs/tech_reports/glerl-031/

The winter of 1978-79 was the 16th coldest since 1779 and it was the third consecutive severe winter over the Great Lakes Region. During January and February 1979, the dominate upper air pressure pattern was such that the Great Lakes Region experienced a persistent northerly and northwesterly flow pattern. As a result, record low and near-record low temperatures were recorded over the lakes during January and February. A unique feature of the 1978-79 winter season occurred on February 17 when all of the Great Lakes were nearly 100 percent ice covered. February 17 was also the date when each of the Great Lakes reached their maximum ice cover. Spring breakup of the ice began during March and by the end of April the lakes were mostly ice free except for Lake Superior, where significant ice cover continued into May. The extensive ice cover and its duration during the season again severely hampered shipping on the lakes. The first ice breaker assistance was rendered on December 11 in Saginaw Bay while the last U.S. Coast Guard assistance was provided near Duluth on May 9.

EADIE, B.J. Effects of increased atmospheric CO2 on the Great Lakes. In Carbon Dioxide Effects Research and Assessment Program: Workshop on Environmental and Societal Consequences of a Possible CO2-Induced Climate Change, U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, DC, 237-250 (1980).

No abstract.

EADIE, B.J., G.L. BELL, R.L. CHAMBERS, J.M. MALCZYK, E.A. STANKEVICH, and A.L. LANGSTON. The effects of dredging on the chemical characteristics of the Grand River. NOAA Data Report ERL GLERL-14, Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory, Ann Arbor, MI (PB80-174600) 25 pp. (1980).

During spring 1977, water was sampled in the Grand River, which runs through the State of Michigan, to estimate the increased loads of polluting and enriching substances caused by dredging the river channel near its mouth at Lake Michigan. Results indicate that sedimentary material disturbed during the dredging process is carried out to the lake. On an annual basis, the increase in loading is approximately 1 percent for all variables measured; however, during the period of dredging (about 1 week), the increases are approximately 30 percent. The effects of these events on the nearshore ecology are not known at present.

EADIE, B.J., and R.L. CHAMBERS. Toxic substances flux program in Lake Michigan. Coastal Ocean Pollution Assessment News 1:7 (1980).

No abstract.

GREAT LAKES ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH LABORATORY. Detailed technical plan for the Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory. Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory, Ann Arbor, MI, 214 pp. (1980).

No abstract.

GREAT LAKES ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH LABORATORY. Technical plan for the Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory. Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory, Ann Arbor, MI, 59 pp. (1980).

No abstract.

*GREAT LAKES ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH LABORATORY, and The University of Michigan. First semiannual progress report to the Office of Marine Pollution Assessment, NOAA. In The Cycling of Toxic Organic Substances in the Great Lakes Ecosystem, Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory, Ann Arbor, MI, (1980).

No abstract.

Hollan, E., D.B. RAO, and E. Bauerle. Free surface oscillations in Lake Constance with an interpretation of the 'Wonder of the Rising Water' at Konstanz in 1549. Archives for Meteorology, Geophysics, and Bioclimatology, Series A 29:301-325 (1980).

No abstract.

JENKINS, C.F. IFYGL Atlas--Lake Ontario Summary Data. Ann Arbor, MI, Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory (1980).

No abstract.

Lick, W. The transport of contaminants in the Great Lakes. GLERL Open File Report, Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory, Ann Arbor, MI 48 pp. (1980).

No abstract.

LIU, P.C. Spectral growth and nonlinear characteristics of wind waves in Lake Ontario. NOAA Technical Report ERL 408-GLERL 14, Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory, Ann Arbor, MI (PB80-193261) 58 pp. (1979).

Recent studies have shown that the growth processes of wind waves are primarily associated with the nonlinear energy flux due to wave-wave interactions. A detailed empirical examination of these interactions uses calculated unispectra, bispectra, and trispectra of continuously recorded wave data during the three episodes of growing waves. While the unispectrum provides information on the energy content of the frequency components, the bispectrum and trispectrum generally provide information on the interactive relations between two- and three-frequency components respectively. These higher-order interactive relations can be considered characterizations of nonlinear interactions. The results indicate that the peak-energy frequency transfers more energy to the lower frequency components than to the higher ones, which is confirmation that unispectral peaks shift progressively toward lower frequencies during wave growth.

LIU, P.C., and B.C. DOUGHTY. Surface waves. In IFYGL Atlas--Lake Ontario Summary Data, C.F. Jenkins (ed.). Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory, Ann Arbor, MI, 162-199 (1980).

No abstract.

MALCZYK, J.M., and B.J. EADIE. Collection, preparation, and analysis procedures employed and precision achieved in the chemical field program, 1976-79. GLERL Open File Report, Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory, Ann Arbor, MI (1980).

No abstract.

Meyers, P.A., S.J. Edwards, and B.J. EADIE. Fatty acid and hydrocarbon content of settling sediments in Lake Michigan. Journal of Great Lakes Research 6(4):331-337 (1980). https://www.glerl.noaa.gov/pubs/fulltext/1980/19800010.pdf

Fatty acid and aliphatic hydrocarbon contents have been examined in sediment collected in traps suspended at three depths at a location in Lake Michigan. Fatty acid distributions are similar at all depths and suggest an authochtonous origin of these materials. Concentrations of acids decrease with greater depths of traps and indicate a combination of active microbial reworking and of dilution by resuspended sedimentary materials. Hydrocarbons in the metalimnion trap contain mostly algal and bacterial components, whereas near-bottom hydrocarbons contain a large land plant contribution, presumably from resuspension of bottom sediments. Comparison of trap contents with fatty acid and hydrocarbons obtained from faunal debris and with published diatom compositions indicates that a mixture of such sources is combined in the organic matter settling in Lake Michigan. Estimated fluxes to the bottom of this pan of the lake are 6.5 g/m2/yr for organic carbon, 1.8 g/m2/yr for fatty acids, and 27 mg/M2 /yr for aliphatic hydrocarbons.

NALEPA, T.F., and M.A. QUIGLEY. Freshwater macroinvertebrates. Journal of Water Pollution Control Federation 52(6):1686-1703 (1980).

No abstract.

NALEPA, T.F., and M.A. QUIGLEY. The macro- and meiobenthos of southeastern Lake Michigan near the mouth of the Grand River, 1976-77. NOAA Data Report ERL GLERL-17, Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory, Ann Arbor, MI (PB81-108169) 12 pp. (1980).

This report presents in detail the methods and basic results of a benthic survey designed to determine the abundance and biomass of both the macro- and meiobenthos of southeastern Lake Michigan. Sediment cores were collected at monthly intervals from may to November 1976 and 1977 by divers using SCUBA. Sampling depths were 11, 17, and 23 m. Organisms retained in screens with aperture openings of 595 mm, 106 mm, and 45 mm were counted and identified to the lowest taxonomic level possible.

PICKETT, R.L. Great Lakes spill model operating instructions. GLERL Open File Report, Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory, Ann Arbor, MI (1980).

No abstract.

PICKETT, R.L. Lake currents. In In IFYGL Atlas--Lake Ontario Summary Data, C.F. Jenkins (ed.). Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory, Ann Arbor, MI, 245-276 (1980).

No abstract.

PICKETT, R.L. Observed and predicted Great Lakes winter circulation. Journal of Physical Oceanography 10(7):1140-1145 (1980). https://www.glerl.noaa.gov/pubs/fulltext/1980/19800003.pdf

Observed mean winter currents in Lakes Ontario and Huron are compared to predictions from a homogeneous, vertically integrated, steady-state model. If specific wind directions are selected to drive this model, the observed and predicted current patterns agree. The specific wind directions were chosen to maximize each lake's wind response. The agreement suggests that there is a mean wind-driven winter circulation in the Great Lakes, and that its pattern depends upon these specific wind directions. Based on these factors, winter circulations for Lakes Erie, Huron and Superior are predicted.

*PINSAK, A.P. Major users and current consumptive use of water in the Great Lakes Basin. In International Great Lakes Diversions and Consumptive Uses Study, U.S. Department of the Army, Corps of Engineers, Detroit, MI, 9.1-9.9 (1979).

No abstract.

POTOK, A.J., and F.H. QUINN. A hydraulic transient model of the upper St. Lawrence River for water resources studies. Water Resources Bulletin 15(6):1538-1555 (1979).

A one-dimensional hydraulic transient model has been designed for water resource studies of Lake Ontario and the Upper St. Lawrence River. The model simulates water surface profiles and flows in the St. Lawrence River between Lake Ontario and the Moses-Saunders Power Dam under both open water and ice-covered conditions. A sensitivity analysis found the model to be most sensitive to the roughness coefficients and the flow through the power dam.

QUINN, F.H. An improved aerodynamic evaporation technique for large lakes with application to the International Field Year for the Great Lakes. Water Resources Research 15(4):935-940 (1979).

An improved bulk transfer technique was developed for large-lake evaporation based upon recent boundary layer research near the air-water interface. A variable bulk transfer coefficient, dependent upon atmospheric stability, is given as a function of the nondimensional wind speed gradient, the potential temperature gradient, and the Monin-Obukhov length. The technique, which requires the same data as the simplified mass transfer equation, can be readily applied to large lakes throughout the world. This technique has been applied to the Lake Ontario data set collected during the International Field Year for the Great Lakes. The inclusion of stability increases calculated evaporation during the unstable high evaporation months and decreases calculated condensation during the stable lake spring months to more realistic levels. Comparisons between the Lake Hefner mass transfer equation and the technique recommended here indicate that the mass transfer equation may overestimate Lake Ontario evaporation by approximately 20%.

QUINN, F.H. Impact of increased consumptive use on Great Lakes water levels. GLERL Open File Report, Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory, Ann Arbor, MI (1980).

No abstract.

QUINN, F.H. Intercomparison analysis of Detroit River dynamic flow models. GLERL Open File Report, Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory, Ann Arbor, MI (1980).

No abstract.

QUINN, F.H. Lake ice. In IFYGL Atlas--Lake Ontario Summary Data, C.F. Jenkins (ed.). Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory, Ann Arbor, MI, 139-161 (1980).

No abstract.

QUINN, F.H. Lake water levels and changes in storage. In IFYGL Atlas--Lake Ontario Summary Data, C.F. Jenkins (ed.). Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory, Ann Arbor, MI, 130-134 (1980).

No abstract.

QUINN, F.H. Note. Wind stress effects on Detroit River discharges. Journal of Great Lakes Research 6(2):172-175 (1980). https://www.glerl.noaa.gov/pubs/fulltext/1980/19800007.pdf

Dynamic flow models are currently used to compute Detroit River discharges for hourly, daily, and monthly time scales. These models include the complete one-dimensional equations of continuity and motion, but neglect the effects of wind stress and ice. The effects of wind stress upon calculated daily and monthly Detroit River discharges are analyzed. The wind effects of several storms with wind setups an surges of Lake Erie were evaluated on an hourly time scale. Inclusion of wind stress terms into the Detroit River models was found to have no significant effect on the monthly flow calculations and on the majority of the daily flow calculations. However, the average monthly effect of -47 m3 s-1 is equivalent to 111 mm depth of water per month on Lake St. Clair, which may be significant for some Lake St. Clair water balance studies. The effect on Lake Erie is on the order of 5 mm of depth per month, which is not significant for water balance studies. The wind stress was found to be important for daily and hourly flow computations when wind velocities were in excess of about 6 m s-1.

QUINN, F.H. Streamflow. In IFYGL Atlas--Lake Ontario Summary Data, C.F. Jenkins (ed.). Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory, Ann Arbor, MI, 135-138 (1980).

No abstract.

QUINN, F.H., R.A. ASSEL, and D.W. GASKILL. An evaluation of the climatic impact of the Niagara ice boom relative to air and water temperature and winter severity. NOAA Technical Memorandum ERL GLERL-30, Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory, Ann Arbor, MI (PB81-14093) 31 pp. (1980). https://www.glerl.noaa.gov/pubs/tech_reports/glerl-030/

The objective of this study was to determine if the Niagara River ice boom installed every winter since 1964-65 has prolonged the Lake Erie ice cover at Buffalo, N.Y., resulting in significant changes in the spring warm-up of Lake Erie and longer, colder winters in the area. On the basis of the analysis presented in this report, there is no evidence that the operation of the ice boom has either extended Buffalo winters or made them more severe. Statistical analysis of Buffalo temperature series compared with those for Lockport, NY, does not reveal any statistically significant cooling in the climate at Buffalo related to the operation of the ice boom. However, because of the distance of the airport from the shore zone, the possibility of a localized effect of small magnitude within the vicinity of the ice boom cannot be ruled out. A comparison of the water temperature at the Buffalo intake as recorded in pre- and post-boom years also indicates that the ice boom has not had an impact on the timing of the spring rise in the Lake Erie water temperature at Buffalo. The analysis of winter temperature trends since 1898 shows that the winter severity at Buffalo follows a general pattern characteristic not only of the region around the eastern end of Lake Erie but also of the Great Lakes Region as a whole. This general pattern has been one of increasing winter severity from 1898 to 1918, decreasing winter severity from 1920 to 1958, and increasing winter severity again from 1958 to the present. Winters have become colder since the installation of the ice boom, but these colder winters are part of a general climatic trend toward more severe winters beginning in 1958. Thus, there is no evidence to suggest that the ice boom has intensified winter severity or duration at Buffalo relative to other areas around the Great Lakes.

Reckhow, K.H., and S.C. CHAPRA. A note on error analysis for a phosphorus retention model. Water Resources Research 15:1643-1646 (1979).

A statistical technique proposed for the estimation of the uncertainty in the prediction of phosphorus concentration in lakes using the Dillon-Rigler-Kirchner model can increase the practical value of this and similar models. The usefulness of this technique can be seen in its application to Lake Charlevoix, Michigan. But there are limitations on the use of this procedure, such as those that relate to model and data uncertainty.

Richardson, W.S., and D.J. SCHWAB. Comparison and verification of dynamical and statistical Lake Erie storm surge forecasts. NOAA Technical Memorandum NWS TDL-69, Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory, Ann Arbor, MI 19 pp. (1979).

The Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory and the Techniques Development Laboratory have compared Lake Erie storm surge forecasts produced by a dynamical and a statistical method for several months in 1977 and 1978. The dynamical method yields much better forecasts at Buffalo and slightly better forecasts at Toledo.

SCAVIA, D. An ecological model of Lake Ontario. Ecological Modeling 8:49-78 (1980).

An ecological model of the epilimnion, hypolimnion and sediment of Lake Ontario is described. The model is based on realistic process equations posed by experimentalists over the past several decades and it simulates observations made of several phytoplankton and zooplankton groups; components of the phosphorus, nitrogen, silicon and carbon cycles; dissolved oxygen; and particulate sediment and pore water dynamics during the International Field Year for the Great Lakes (IFYGL). Model output is aggregated into a carbon flow diagram to illustrate the importance of detritus and herbivorous zooplankton in the ecology of Lake Ontario. The model serves as a synthesis tool for analysis of the large ecosystem.

SCAVIA, D. Examination of phosphorus cycling and control of phytoplankton dynamics in Lake Ontario with an ecological model. Journal Fisheries Research Board of Canada 36:1336-1346 (1979).

An ecological model of Lake Ontario was used to assist in interpretation of data collected during the International Field Year for the Great Lakes (March 1972-April 1973). The analysis indicated that in spring and fall phytoplankton biomass is controlled by the interaction of incoming solar radiation and vertical mixing, in summer by silica- and phosphorus-limitation, and in late summer by zooplankton grazing. The influence of CaCO3 precipitation on the light climate in lake summer was also demonstrated. During the period of stratification, available phosphorus concentration is controlled by recycling within the epilimnion, primarily through plant and animal excretion. Comparison of simulated available phosphorus concentrations and concentrations of total dissolved phosphorus and soluble reactive phosphorus in the empilimnion suggest that the composition of the soluble unreactive phosphorus pool changes dramatically during the year and that the large pool of dissolved unavailable phosphorus during summer is composed of end products of material cycled several times through the food web.

SCAVIA, D. The need for innovative verification of eutrophication models. In Workshop on Verification of Water Quality Models, EPA Report No. EPA-600/9-80-016, Environmental Protection Agency, Athens, GA, 214-225 (1980).

No abstract.

**SCAVIA, D. Uncertainty analysis of a lake eutrophication model. Ph.D. dissertation. The University of Michigan, University Microfilms, Ann Arbor, MI, (1980).

No abstract.

SCAVIA, D., and J.R. Bennett. Spring transition period in Lake Ontario--A numerical study of the causes of the large biological and chemical gradients. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 37(5):823-833 (1980).

A two-dimensional model that calculates physical transport, as well as in situ biological and chemical transformations, accurately simulates observations made along a north-south transect in Lake Ontario during April-June 1972. Simulation results show that, during the transition period between spring and summer, the inshore-offshore structure of biological and chemical distributions is controlled by the interaction of in situ processes and differences in vertical mixing on either side of the 4o isotherm. Owing to reversals in flow patterns, the effect of advection is to reduce concentration gradients, but the effect on overall distributions is minimal. An analysis of sinking losses in one- and two-dimensional models indicates that the artificially low sinking rates used in one-dimensional models of the Great Lakes result from the neglect of upwelling.

SCHWAB, D.J. The free oscillations of Lake St. Clair--An application of Lanczos' procedure. NOAA Technical Memorandum ERL GLERL-32, Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory, Ann Arbor, MI (PB81-134520) 12 pp. (1980). https://www.glerl.noaa.gov/pubs/tech_reports/glerl-032/

The frequencies and structures of the five lowest free oscillations of Lake St. Clair are determined by a Lanczos procedure. With the Lanczos procedure, a high resolution numerical grid can be used to resolve the detailed structure of the modes. The lowest mode has a calculated period of 4.06 h.

SCHWAB, D.J., P.C. LIU, H.K. SOO, R.D. KISTLER, H.L. BOOKER, and J.D. BOYD. Wind and wave measurements taken from a tower in Lake Michigan. Journal of Great Lakes Research 6(1):76-82 (1980). https://www.glerl.noaa.gov/pubs/fulltext/1980/19800005.pdf

In July 1977 the Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory installed a lightweight, solar powered research tower in Lake Michigan. The tower, located 2 km offshore from Muskegon, Michigan in 16 m of water, provided a stable platform for two levels of anemometers and air temperature sensors, a surface water temperature sensor, and an array of four wave staffs to measure meteorological and directional wave variables. Solar power was successfully used to provide power for tower instrumentation. The measurements, while short-lived due to a guy wire failure in October 1977, comprise over 1300 well-documented hourly wind and wave data for further detailed studies. This report presents a detailed description of the instrumentation, data collection, and data reduction systems. The results show that the triangular array of wave staffs provides reasonable wave direction information, although nearshore waves appear to have a larger onshore component of momentum than would be indicated by prevailing winds. Further detailed studies of wind and wave processes are in progress.

SCHWAB, D.J., and D.L. SELLERS. Computerized bathymetry and shorelines of the Great Lakes. NOAA Data Report ERL GLERL-16, Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory, Ann Arbor, MI (PB80-218308) 13 pp. (1980).
https://www.glerl.noaa.gov/pubs/tech_reports/glerl-016/dr-016.pdf

This report describes bathymetric grid data and digitized shorelines compiled for the five Great Lakes and Lake St. Clair. The bathymetric grids consist of an array containing the average lake depths in 2-km squares (1.2-km squares for Lake St. Clair). The digitized shorelines are lists of latitudes and longitudes for closed loops describing lake and island shorelines. Conversion equations for map-to-geographical and geographical-to-map coordinate transformations are given for all the bathymetric grids. An appendix details the format of the data base.

Thomas, N.A., A. ROBERTSON, and W.C. SONZOGNI. Chapter 4. Review of control objectives: New target loads and input controls. In Phosphorus Management Strategies for Lakes, R.C. Loehr, C. S. Martin, and W. Rast (eds.). Ann Arbor Science, Ann Arbor, MI, 61-90 (1980).

No abstract.

Whiteside, M.C., J.P. Bradbury, and S.J. TARAPCHAK. The limnology of the Klutan moraine lakes. Quaternary Research 14:130-148 (1980).

Lakes of the Klutlan moraines originate by down-melting of stagnant ice under a mantle of rock debris and vegetation ranging from scattered herbs and shrubs on the younger moraines to multiple-generation closed spruce forest on the oldest moraines, which are 600-1200 yr old. Lakes on the youngest moraines are temporary, turbid with glacial silt, and marked by unstable ice-cored slopes. On older moraines most lakes have clear water and stable slopes. On the oldest moraines many lakes have brown water caused by dissolved humic materials derived from the thick forest floor, but even here some slopes are unstable because of continued melting of buried ice. Morainic lakes contain bicarbonate waters of moderate alkalinity and conductivity and low levels of nutrients. The highly diverse phytoplankton is dominated by chrysophytes and cryptomonades, with few diatoms. Extremely low values for phytoplankton biomass place most of the lakes in an "ultraoligotrophic" category. Zooplankton is dominated by copepods, which were found even in ice ponds only a few years old, and by the caldoceran Daphnia pulex. Surface-sediment samples contained a total of 16 species of chydorid Cladocera. Of these, Alonella excisa and Alona barbulata are apparently the pioneer species in the youngest lakes. Chydorus sphaericus only appears in lakes of the oldest moraines. A successional pattern is not conspicuous, however, partly because some of the lakes on the older moraines originated by recent collapse over buried ice. Lakes on the upland outside the dead-ice moraines yielded 39 species in the zooplankton. The distinctive assemblage on upland lakes may relate more to different water chemistry than to age.

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