GLERL Publications Abstracts: FY 1986

ASSEL, R.A. Fall and winter thermal structure of Lake Superior. Journal of Great Lakes Research 12(4):251-262 (1986).

Temperature surveys were made along the normal upbound (westward)and downbound (eastward) shipping lanes across Lake Superior to document fall and winter thermal structure of that lake. This work was done as part of the Congressionally-funded Demonstration Program to Extend the Navigation Season on the Great Lakes and the St. Lawrence Seaway. Surveys were made aboard ore carriers using a portable bathythermograph (BT) system and expendable BT probes. Surveys usually took 2 to 4 days to complete. Twenty-one surveys were made during the winters of 1973 to 1976 and 25 surveys were made during the falls of 1976 to 1979. Mean seasonal temperature trends identified from these data include: (1) approximately exponential increase in fall mixed layer depth through early to mid-November, (2) maximum value of average mixed layer and upper 25-m layer temperatures between the end of August and mid-September, (3) maximum value of average water column temperature in late September, (4) isothermal conditions between mid-November and mid-December, (5) completion off all overturn in December and winter restratification in December or January depending primarily upon winds, (6) average winter [January to March] monthly mixed layer depth between 60 m and 100 m and, (7) minimum value of average water column temperature in late March. Midlake and nearshore thermal regimes were identified. These thermal regimes show agreement in trend with lake bathymetry, windfetch, and lake circulation patterns. Deeper areas with longer windfetch in both thermal regimes have the deepest mixed layers during winter. Areas having the combination of greater depth and larger wind fetch, midlake areas in most cases, also tend to have higher column temperatures and ice cover of short duration in winter and lower column temperatures in summer relative to adjacent areas.

ASSEL, R.A. Great Lakes degree-day and winter severity index uptate: 1897-1983. NOAA Data Report ERL GLERL-29, Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory, Ann Arbor, MI (PB-222437/XAB) 61 pp. (1986).

Daily maximum and minimum temperatures at 25 stations on the perimeter of the Great Lakes for the winters of 1977-1983 are used to calculate freezing degree-days and thawing degree-days. Daily, weekly, and monthly FDD's and daily TDD's for those years are presented in microfilm appendixes, which are available from the National Snow and Ice Data Center located in Boulder, Colorado. This report also updates an 80-winter FDD climatology and presents tabulations of the seasonal maximum FDD's and TDD's for each of the 86 winters and 87 summers between 1897 and 1983. The maximum FDD's are used to revise winter severity class limits developed in an earlier study and to identify those winters with above and below normal severity over the 86-winter base period. The period of the update is remarkable in that it contained some of the most severe and most mild winters of the 86-year base period.

ASSEL, R.A. Temperature effects on Lake Superior changes in storage: A case study for 1976. GLERL Open File Report, Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory, Ann Arbor, MI 32 pp. (1986).

I calculated the effects of thermal expansion and contraction on lake storage and net basin supply (NBS) for Lake Superior by using temperature survey data and a one-dimensional thermal structure model to estimate mean lake beginning-of-month (BOM) temperature profiles. Summation of the product of water density and water volume for 40 discrete layers of Lake Superior defined the lake's mass on BOM dates. Thermal change in lake storage between BOM dates were then calculated from joint volumetric and mass balances. An error of 0.4oC in the BOM temperature profile results in an average error of 27% in the thermal component of monthly change in lake storage. Thermal change in lake storage peaked during the period of thermal stratification [July, August, and September] when it accounted for over 10% of the change in storage. The thermal component of total change in lake storage was relatively important in May and July because published data indicate that there was no change in lake storage during these months in 1976. Thermal corrections to NBS ranged from 5% to over 100% when the NBS was less than 400 cubic meters per second, in January, February, and August of 1976. Thermal corrections to NBS for July and September, when thermal changes in lake storage are near maximum, were about 12% and 30% respectively.

ASSEL, R.A. Thermal changes in Lake Superior storage for 1976. GLERL Open File Report, Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory, Ann Arbor, MI 9 pp. (1986).

Thermal change in lake storage between beginning-of-month (BOM) dates was calculated from joint volumetric and mass balances. Thermal change in storage was important in May and July because published data (Quinn and Kelley 1983) indicate no change in lake storage during these months in 1976. For the remaining months, thermal change in storage peaked during the period of thermal stratification when it accounted for over 10% of the change in storage. Thermal corrections to net basin supply (NBS) ranged from 30% to over 100% when the NBS was less then 400 cubic meters per second; thermal corrections to NBS when greater than 400 cubic meters per second were between 1% and 30% and averaged 8.5%. An error analysis indicated that a 0.4oC error along the entire BOM temperature profile yielded an average error of 27% in the monthly thermal change in storage.

AUBERT, E.J. The need for Great Lakes research. Journal of Great Lakes Research 12(3):147 (1986).

The Great Lakes are a valuable international resource, are heavily used, and have resource problems associated with natural variability and conflicts of use. Decision makers in government and private institutions are confronted with numerous goals, often conflicting, from which they must try to achieve fair and balanced policies. Among these Great Lakes goals are: enhancement of commercial and sports fisheries and the health of the entire ecosystem that supports them, rational use of water supply including withdrawals, consumptive use, and diversions of lake water, encouragement of recreation and tourism, and use of the lakes for transportation, waste disposal, hydropower, and mining. Great Lakes management decisions are being made with insufficient knowledge and information. Increased understanding of how the Great Lakes ecosystems function is a recognized precursor to assessing system response to specific stresses and corrective options. A similar need to understand causality was expressed by the U.S. National Research Council Geophysics Research Board. "When decisions regarding the use of our nation's marine systems must be made, the store of reliable knowledge and predictive capability of our models must be considered the primary source of useful guidance." The U.S./Canadian Great Lakes Science Advisory Board in its 1982 Annual Report expressed a similar line of reasoning. "One purpose of Great Lakes research is to establish the relationships between water quality problems and their causes. Since water quality management strategies are based entirely on the understanding of these relationships, it is improbable that sound management decisions can be formulated in the absence of such research." The goals of the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement will not be met by attention to water quality alone. The relevant ecosystem includes all first order interacting components - land, air, water, sediments, and man. If research is inadequate, it will be difficult to identify problems, understand the cause-effect relationships, predict ecosystem responses or behavior, and ultimately improve the management of the Great Lakes.

BOLSENGA, S.J., H.A. VANDERPLOEG, M.A. QUIGLEY, G.L. FAHNENSTIEL, and W.R. BURNS. Under ice ecology pilot program: Operations report and preliminary scientific results. GLERL Open File Report, Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory, Ann Arbor, MI 46 pp. (1986).

In order to determine the effects of ice cover on biota, a pilot program was developed to test the feasibility of conducting a large scale study on under ice ecology in the Great Lakes. The east arm of Traverse Bay in the lower peninsula of Michigan was chosen as the test area. The project was conducted in three phases; 1) a pre -ice cruise (open water), 2) an under ice phase and 3) a post-ice cruise (open water). This report describes the purpose of each phase, the operations conducted and the preliminary scientific results from each phase. The express purpose is to provide a chronology of the events as they occurred to aid others conducting such programs in the future.

CROLEY, T.E.II. Evapotranspiration dynamics for large river basins. Proceedings, National Conference on Advances in Evapotranspiration, Chicago, IL, December 16-17, 1985. American Society of Agricultural Engineers, St. Joseph, MI, 423-430 (1985).

While classic potential evapotranspiration concepts work well in modeling the hydrology of small areas, climatic considerations do better in modeling runoff from, and soil moistures in, large river basins. Evapotranspiration over large areas changes complementary to the heat available for evapotranspiration as well varying proportionally with both the available heat and available soil moisture. This paper explores the difference between the classic and complementary approaches for estimating evapotranspiration in a tank-cascade model applied to river basins emptying into the Great Lakes. The model uses interdependent storages and employs analytic solutions of the mass balances for snowpack, upper and lower soil zones, groundwater, and surface water. These are coupled with physically-based concepts of linear reservoir storages, partial-area infiltration, and degree-day determinations of snowmelt and net supply. Evapotranspiration losses are determined from joint consideration of available energy and available moisture in the soil horizons by using the complementary and moisture- and heat-dependent concepts. The model's mathematical structure allows the use of analytic solutions, bypassing the inaccuracies and convergence problems associated with numeric solutions. The structure of the mathematical models, and particularly the evapotranspiration - soil moisture concept, is presented. The model proves to be a physically reasonable and efficient description of river flows that is easy to use and that agrees well with both historic data and the perceived hydrology within the Laurentian Great Lakes Basin.

CROLEY, T.E.II. Understanding recent high Great Lakes water levels. Proceedings, Great Lakes Symposium 'Those Magnificent Sweetwater Seas', 10th Annual Conference of the National Marine Educators Association, John Carroll University, Cleveland, OH, August 6, 1986. 60-77 (1986).

No abstract.

CROLEY, T.E., II, and H.C. HARTMANN. Areal averaging of point measurements in near real-time. Reprints from preprints, Second International Conference on Interactive Information and Processing Systems for Meteorology, Oceanography, and Hydrology, Miami, FL, January 14-17, 1986. American Meteorology Society, Boston, MA, 158-164 (1986).

No abstract.

CROLEY, T.E., II, and H.C. HARTMANN. Lake Superior water supply forecasting. Preprint Volume, Sixth Conference on Hydrometeorology, Indianapolis, IN, October 29 - November 1, 1985. American Meteorological Society, Boston, MA, 149-154 (1985).

No abstract.

CROLEY, T.E., II, and H.C. HARTMANN. Mapping drainage areas on digital maps from boundary coordinates. GLERL Open File Report, Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory, Ann Arbor, MI 31 pp. (1986).

No abstract.

DERECKI, J.A. Effect of channel changes in the St. Clair River during the present century. Journal of Great Lakes Research 11 (3):201-207 (1985).

Periodic man-made changes in the outlet of Lake Huron through the St. Clair River date back to the middle of the last century. These artificial channel changes have been well documented during the present century. They consist of dredging for commercial gravel removal in the upper river during 1908-25 and uncompensated navigation improvements for the 7.6-m (25-ft) and 8.2-m (27-ft) projects completed in 1933 and 1962, respectively. The total effect of these changes on the levels of Lakes Michigan and Huron (hydraulically one lake) and on the upper St. Clair River profile was determined with dynamic flow models. The ultimate effect of the above dredging was a permanent lowering of the Lake Michigan-Huron levels 0.27 m (0.89 ft), which represents a tremendous loss of freshwater resource [32 km3 (7.7 mi3)].

DERECKI, J.A. Method used by the Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory (U.S.) to compute flows. GLERL Open File Report, Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory, Ann Arbor, MI 14 pp. (1986).

No abstract.

DERECKI, J.A., and F.H. QUINN. Natural regulation of the Great Lakes by ice jams: A case study. Proceedings, Fourth Workshop on Hydraulics of River Ice, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, June 19-20, 1986. F-4.1-F-4.24 (1986).

This study addresses the causes and the regulating effects on the Great Lakes levels and flows of the April 1984 ice jam in the St. Clair River. This jam had a duration of 24 days (5-29 April), established records for both magnitude and lateness of occurrence, and had major impact on navigation throughout the Great Lakes. Changes in water levels were measured at a number of sites along the river and Lake St. Clair. Flows in the St. Clair River were monitored with two continuously recording electromagnetic current meters located in the upper river (Port Huron). Following the onset of the jam, Lake St. Clair water levels dropped about 65 cm because of drastically reduced inflow. The corresponding drop in the Lake Erie levels was about 20 cm. The levels of Lake Michigan-Huron were increased about 6 cm because of the reduced outflow and storage of water on the lake. At the peak of the jam the flows were reduced by approximately 65 percent. Following the jam breaking, the waters of Lake St. Clair rose rapidly, recovering approximately 75 percent of the drop in levels in 4 days. Computer simulations indicate that it will take at least 3 years for the excess water stored during the jam to be dissipated and for levels in Lakes Michigan and Huron to return to pre-jam conditions. Additionally, both Lakes St. Clair and Erie will have higher water levels through 1987 as the stored water drains through them.

EADIE, B.J. Plenary Paper 1: Exposure Assessment: Computational Strategies. Report of the Workshop on Hazard Assessment of Chemicals, November 26-27, 1985. National Water Research Institute, Canada Centre for Inland Waters, Burlington, ON, Canada, (1985).

No abstract.

EADIE, B.J., P.F. LANDRUM, and W.R. FAUST. Existence of a seasonal cycle of PAH concentration in the amphipod Pontoporeia hoyi. In Polynuclear Aromatic Hydrocarbons: Tenth International Symposium on A Decade of Progress, M.W. Cooke and A.J. Dennis (eds.). Batelle Press, Columbus, OH, 195-209 (1985).

No abstract.

FAHNENSTIEL, G.L., L. Sicko-Goad, D. SCAVIA, and E.F. Stoermer. Importance of picoplankton in Lake Superior. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 43(1):235-240 (1986).

In Lake Superior, approximately 50% of total primary production is attributable to phytoplankton that pass through a 3-mm screen. The <3-mm size class is dominated by eukaryotic flagellates, nonmotile eukaryotic cells (mm), and chroococcoid cyanobacteria. Approximately 20% of the total primary production is attributable to orange autoflourescent chroococcoid cyanobacteria (mean size = 0.7 mm) as determined by size fractionation and track autoradiograpy. These small prokaryotes exhibited abundances of 42 000 and 56 000 cells x mL-1, maximum photosynthetic rates of 7 and 6 fg x cell-1 x h-1, and growth rates of 1.5 and 0.8 x d-1 in the epilimnion and hypolimnion, respectively. A significant portion of this picoplankton (<1 mm) production may be consumed by heterotrophic protozoans in a "microbial loop."

FRANK, A.P., P.F. LANDRUM, and B.J. EADIE. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon rates of uptake, depuration, and biotransformation by Lake Michigan Styloridilus heringianus. Chemosphere 15(3):317-330 (1986).

Uptake, depuration, and biotransformation rates of selected unsubstituted polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Stylodrilus heringianus were determined. These were compared to rates for other benthic organisms, particularly Mysis relicta and Pontoporeia hoyi. Uptake from lake water skid sediment from Lake Michigan, where S. heringianus is an abundant oligochaete, was determined. Independent sediment uptake experiments involved two sediment particle size matrices. Depuration rate constants ranged from 0.013 to 0.020 h-1. Biotransformation over 48 h was negligible. Bioconcentration and PAH uptake relative to oxygen uptake were predicted.

GREAT LAKES ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH LABORATORY. Annual Report for the Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory, FY 1985. Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory, Ann Arbor, MI, 48 pp. (1985).

No abstract.

GREAT LAKES ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH LABORATORY. Detailed Technical Plan for the Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory. Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory, Ann Arbor, MI, 300 pp. (1986).

No abstract.

GREAT LAKES ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH LABORATORY. Technical Plan for the Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory. Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory, Ann Arbor, MI, 76 pp. (1986).

No abstract.

HARTMANN, H.C. Historical basis for limits on Lake Superior level regulations. GLERL Open File Report, Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory, Ann Arbor, MI 24 pp. (1986).

No abstract.

HAWLEY, N., J.A. ROBBINS, and B.J. EADIE. The partitioning of 7beryllium in fresh water. Geochemica et Cosmochimica Acta 50:1127-1131 (1986).

Field observations and experimental measurements of the partitioning coefficient (Kd) of 7Be in fresh water show that it varies inversely with the solids concentration at typical environmental values (up to 30 mg/1). This behavior is similar to that of many other metals and organic pollutants, which means that 7Be may be useful as a tracer of the movement of these substances in the water column. However, the wide range in the percentage of 7Be adsorbed by solids over this range of concentrations (over 50%) means that in order to use 7Be either to measure total sedimentation rates or to trace lateral sediment movement it will be necessary to monitor changes in sediment concentration over the area and time period of interest. The wide scatter in our data at both high and low solids concentrations suggests that other factors also affect Kd. Until these factors are identified, application of our results to other systems will be risky. At high (greater than 100 mg/1) solids concentrations over 90% of 7Be is associated with the solid phase, so it may be a useful tracer of reworking rates in bottom sediments. 7Be has a slightly greater affinity for the solid phase in fresh water than in seawater.

Herdendorf, C.E., K. Knebusch, S.J. BOLSENGA, R. DeAngelis, and M. Brainard. Central Lake Erie Recreational Climate Guide. Produced by the Ohio Sea Grant Program at The Ohio State University, 40 pp. (1986).

No abstract.

Herdendorf, C.E., K. Knebusch, S.J. BOLSENGA, R. DeAngelis, and M. Brainard. Western Lake Erie Recreational Climate Guide. Produced by the Ohio Sea Grant Program at The Ohio State University, 40 pp. (1986).

No abstract.

Horn, W., C.H. Mortimer, and D.J. SCHWAB. Wind-induced internal seiches in Lake Zurich observed and modeled. Limnology and Oceanography 31(6):1232-1254 (1986).

During August and September 1978, 31 current meters and 120 temperature sensors were deployed to record every 10 or 20 min at various depths at 12 moorings (with wind speed and direction at three moorings) in Lake Zurich. We explore here the baroclinic (internal seiche) response to wind impulses, observed as fluctuations in isotherm depth and current speeds. Those fluctuations and their energy spectra are compared with the predictions of two models fitted to basin topography and to the observed average thermal structure: a two-layered variable-depth (TVD) model developed by D. J. Schwab, fitted to basin topography and incorporating a two-dimensional horizontal grid, and C. H. Mortimer's two-layered modification of a simpler procedure originally developed for surface seiche calculations by A. Defant. The dominant responses to wind impulses were internal seiches of the first longitudinal mode (average period 44 h). Weaker signals from the second (24 h) and third (17 h) modes were also seen in spectra of temperature and current fluctuations. The models displayed patterns of thermocline displacement and current which, in periodicity and structure, were closely similar to those observed. Predictions of the Defant model were less precise, particularly for current. Founded on linear theory and neglecting the effects of rotation, the models were unable to reproduce two features occasionally seen in the lake motions: clockwise or anticlockwise rotation of current direction; and internal surges arising when storms induced large-amplitude downstrokes of the thermocline at one basin end or the other. The lake's internal response was principally dependent on the timing, strength, and duration of the wind impulse, relative to and interacting with internal seiche motions already in progress.

Krezoski, J.R., and J.A. ROBBINS. Vertical distribution of feeding and particle-selective transport of 137Cs in lake sediments by Lumbriculid Oligochaetes. Journal of Geophysical Research 90(C6):11,999-12,006 (1985).

Lumbriculid oligochaetes are an important member of the conveyor belt deposit-feeding species responsible for advective reworking of profundal sediments in the Great Lakes. These threadlike worms ingest sediments over a range of depths (0-5 cm) and deposit gut contents at the sediment surface. This action results in a depth-dependent particle advection rate which can be related to the distribution of their feeding. In this study, two replicate microcosms of rectangular cross section (3 x 5 cm) containing evenly spaced (1 cm) thin layers (0.5 mm) of sediment labeled with gamma-emitting 137Cs were inoculated with the lumbriculid Stylodrilus heringianus at a density of ~7.9 x 104 m-2 (10oC). The subsequent amount of tracer lost from each layer as well as the downward movement of the layers were determined by peiodically scanning the length of the cells with a well-collimated gamma detector system. During the course of the 600-hour experiment, 137Cs activities decreased only in layers between 0 and 6 cm depth. These decreases were accompanied by the appearance of a new layer at the sediment surface. Between 90 and 90% of the activity lost from the underlying layers appeared in the emergent surface peak, thus indicating that subsurface defecation was minor aspect of conveyor belt transport. Decreases in 137Cs activity within layers were consistent with first-order kinetics with a maximum loss rate of about 0.08% hour-1. The vertical distribution of the rate constant was very nearly Gaussian with the maximum at 3.3 cm and a spread (SD) of 1.4 cm. The rate of layer burial decreased monotonically but nonlinearly with sediment depth from an extrapolated surface value of about 1.8 x 10-2 mm h-1. A model based on conservation of mass was developed which relates the tracer feeding distribution to the velocity distribution assuming that the distribution of mass removed through feeding was proportional to the amount of tracer removed. The model takes rigorous account of depth-dependent porosity and provides an excellent description of the velocity distributions if the transfer of 137Cs is taken to be 1.67 times the mass transfer rate. This factor, termed the feeding selectivity factor, is attributed to the selection of fine particles by worms and is important in models describing trace and contaminant diagenesis in sediments reworked by conveyor belt species.

LAIRD, G.A., D. SCAVIA, and G.L. FAHNENSTIEL. Note. Algal organic carbon excretion in Lake Michigan. Journal of Great Lakes Research 12(2):136-141 (1986).

Bioassay-measured, labile dissolved organic carbon (LDOC) concentrations were compared in near-bottom and near-surface Lake Michigan water between April and October 1986. In five of seven experiments, the LDOC concentration was higher in near-bottom water. LDOC reached 40.2% of the total DOC pool in the near-bottom water in late May and 13.8% in the near-surface water in early July. Concentration in near-bottom water was highest during early stratification; concentration in surface water varied less but was highest in early July. The data suggested that an allochthonous source of labile organic C may be important.

LANDRUM, P.F. Toxicokinetics of organic xenobiotics in Pontoporeia hoyi. Ann Arbor, MI, Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory 14 pp. (1986).

This report describes the toxicokinetics of selected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and polychlorinated biphenyls in the Great Lakes amphipod, Pontoporeia hoyi.

LANG, G.A., and D. SCAVIA. Calculation of vertical diffusivity in Lake Washington based on long-term simulation of thermal structure. NOAA Technical Memorandum ERL GLERL-59, Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory, Ann Arbor, MI (PB86-205515/XAB) 79 pp. (1986).

A one-dimensional vertical heat-diffusion model, empirically parameterized in terms of the gradient Richardson number and the Brunt-Vaisala frequency, is described. Comparison of observed and simulated vertical thermal structure and total heat content in Lake Washington for the period 1963-1976 demonstrates that the model produces a good parameterization of bulk vertical mixing processes. Fourteen years of daily-averaged, model-calculated eddy diffusion coefficients (k) are presented. Narrow 99 percent confidence intervals calculated for mean eddy diffusivity at depth indicate low year-to-year variability in k. The model is also examined on a finer scale (0.5-m vertical segmentation, 5 min time step, and hourly forcing data) to simulate diel stratification during 1972. Increased stability and subsequent reduction in vertical mixing in the surface waters under diel stratification suggest near-surface water (0-5 m) may be held at that depth during the day rather than mixed throughout the epilimnion.

LESHKEVICH, G.A. Airborne measurements of the spectral reflectance of freshwater ice. Proceedings, 3rd International Colloquim on Spectral Signature of Objects in Remote Sensing, Les Arcs, France, December 16-20, 1985. 245-248 (1986).

Measurements of the spectral radiance from open water, old snow, and four freshwater ice types were made over Saginaw Bay (Lake Huron) from an altitude of 300 m under clear skies on march 20, 1985. Simultaneous radiance and irradiance measurements were also make at (or near) the surface over a reference panel and over the old snow and water. Three measurements were made over each surface type and averaged. After determining the spectral reflectance of the snow and water, an algorithm was applied to calculate the spectral reflectance of the ice types measured from 300 m, corrected for atmospheric attenuation and path radiance.

MOREHEAD, N.R., B.J. EADIE, B. LAKE, P.F. LANDRUM, and D. BERNER. The sorption of PAH onto dissolved organic matter in Lake Michigan waters. Chemosphere 14(4):403-412 (1986).

The polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons are hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOC) that associate with dissolved organic matter (DOM) in natural water systems. The DOM-HOC complex is sufficiently stable to allow measurement of an association constant, KB. For individual HOC in different natural waters, KB ranges over two orders of magnitude. Our results show that the KB is more dependent on the source of the DOM than the water solubility of the HOC but that for a specific water sample, correlation of KB with solubility does exist.

NALEPA, T.F., and M.A. QUIGLEY. Distribution of epibenthic microcrustaceans in nearshore Lake Michigan. Freshwater Inverebrate Biology 4(2):53-63 (1985).

Epibenthic distributions at depths of 11, 17, and 23 m in nearshore Lake Michigan were investigated by sampling the sediments and water column on a monthly basis from May to November 1977. The taxa with a greater portion of the population occurring in/near the sediments than in the water column were Acanthocyclops vernalis, cyclopoid copepodids IV-V, and Eurytemora affinis. The taxa occurring mostly in the water column were early stage cyclopoids (nauplii and copepodids I-III) and Bosmina longirostris. For all epibenthic taxa except nauplii, abundances in/near the sediments declined as water depth increased; total mean densities at the 11, 17, and 23 m depths were 13,3000; 3,500; and 1,500/m2, respectively. In contrast, abundances in the water column did not decline with increased depth; total mean densities a the three depths were 15,3000; 17,000; and 14,400/m3. Based on concentrations in the sediments and vertical distributions in the water column, many taxa were more aggregated near the bottom in spring/early summer than later in the year. This coincided with the occurrence of a fine layer of detritus over the sandy sediments at this time. Nighttime dispersal off the bottom into the water column was less apparent in spring/early summer than in midsummer. Our findings suggest that in any quantitative study of microcrustaceans in nearshore areas of the Great Lakes, the sediments as well as the water column must be considered.

QUIGLEY, M.A., and J.A. ROBBINS. Phosphorus release processes in nearshore southern Lake Michigan. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 43:1201-1207 (1986).

We determined soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) release rates from intact, medium-fine sand cores obtained from an 11-m-deep sampling site in nearshore Lake Michigan during July-October 1980. mean SRP release ranged from 0.17 +/- 0.03 (SE) to 0.57 +/- 0.04 mg PO4-P x m-2 x d-1. Pore water analysis indicated that, despite high dissolved oxygen concentrations in the uppermost 6 cm of sediment, SRP concentrations increased rapidly with depth throughout this zone. Moreover, a Fickian diffusion equation based on the SRP pore water gradient and physical sediment features predicted a release rate (1.12 mg PO4-P x m-1 x d-1) that was 2-7 times higher than release rates measured from intact cores. Results suggest that nearshore sediments provide a ready pathway for the return of SRP to overlying water, and this process warrants inclusion in future conceptual models of Lake Michigan's phosphorus cycle.

QUINN, F.H. Causes and consequences of the record high 1985 Great Lakes water levels. Reprinted from the Preprint Volume of the Conference on Climate and Water Management--A Critical Era and Conference on the Human Consequences of 1985's Climate, Asheville, NC, August 4-7, 1986. American Meteorological Society, Boston, MA, 281-284 (1986).

No abstract.

QUINN, F.H. Implications of interbasin diversions, consumptive use, and the greenhouse effect on future Great Lakes water management. Preprint Volume, Sixth Conference on Hydrometeorology, Indianapolis, IN, October 28-November 1, 1985. American Meteorological Society, Boston, MA, 145-148 (1985).

No abstract.

QUINN, F.H. Temporal effects of St. Clair River dredging on Lakes St. Clair and Erie water levels and connecting channel flow. Journal of Great Lakes Research 11(3):400-403 (1985).

Volatile halocarbon neasurements show that presently active point sources for contaminants in the Detroit River are primarily sewage treatment plants (STP) and combined storm sewers. From the observed ratios of municipal and industrial type contaminants, it is deduced that the waste water processed by sewage treatment plants contains significant contaminant loadings of industrial origin. Major sources of such loadings were found along the Trenton Channel, at the confluences of several tributaries including the Ecorse River, River Rouge, Conners Creek, Little River, and Turkey Creek, and at outfalls from several industrial areas including the Detroit STP, Ford Canada, West Windsor STP, and Allied Chemical Canada.

QUINN, F.H., and B. Guerra. Current perspectives on the Lake Erie water balance. Journal of Great Lakes Research 12(2):109-116 (1986).

An analysis was conducted of the Lake Erie water balance for 1940-79, based upon the individual hydrologic components, including thermal expansion and consumptive use. Particular emphasis was given to the continuity of the system. Annual and monthly statistics are presented for each of the water balance components. While the Detroit River contributed 87 percent of the Lake Erie total water supply, the variability of the net basin supplies was also found to be of importance in explaining annual water level fluctuations. A major step function was found to occur in the annual water balance between 19858 and 1959, which illustrates the large discontinuities that can occur when calculating the net basin supplies from residuals rather than directly from precipitation, runoff, and evaporation. The annual water balance for 1959-79 was found to be well satisfied with an average annual residual of about 0.5 percent of the Detroit River or Niagara River flow. A distinct seasonality was noted in the mass continuity of the monthly water balance. Also on a seasonal basis, the change in storage due to thermal expansion was significant during the late spring and early fall months.

Richardson, W.S., D.J. SCHWAB, Y.Y. Chao, and D.M. Wright. Lake Erie wave height forecasts generated by empirical and dynamical methods - comparison and verification. NOAA TN OPC, 23 pp. (1986).

No abstract.

ROBBINS, J.A. A model for particle-selective transport of tracers in sediments with conveyor belt deposit feeders. Journal of Geophysical Research 91(C7):8542-8558 (1986).

Conveyor belt deposit-feeding organisms prevalent in both marine and freshwater systems have a profound effect on sediment properties and transport processes. These organisms ingest sediments over a range of depths while depositing gut contents from tails protruding above the sediment surface. This action results in particle-selective transfer of buried materials to the sediment surface and imposes an accelerated rate of sediment and pore water burial within the feeding zone. Most previous efforts to combine sediment diagenesis with the effects of biogenic reworking characterize mixing as exclusively diffusive and ignore such major advective effects. Here a model is developed, based on fundamental diagenetic equations for transport and reaction, for the distribution of tracers in accumulating sediments subject to compaction and diffusive as well as advective redistribution by benthic organisms. Conveyor belt (CB) feeding is characterized as a first-order process with a depth-dependent rate constant which is either localized (Gaussian) or distributed (integrated Gaussian). Biogenic diffusivity of bulk sediments is allowed these alternative depth dependences as well. The model assumes simple linear adsorption of the tracer between solid and solution phases and uses a time-dependent flux at (x=0) which is a combination of that originating externally and the depth-integrated contributions from feeding. Particle selectivity is introduced by applying mass conservation separately to transport of the tracer and bulk sediments. Properties of the model are illustrated for tracers in nondispersive systems strongly bound to sediment solids. CB recycling gives rise to transient reflections on passage of a tracer pulse through the zone of bioturbation. Reflections readily disappear in the presence of various integrative processes. The system time resolution is defined in terms of the downward propagation of dual tracer pulses and shown to be systematically degraded by intensified feeding and selective transport. A simple expression is developed for estimating the magnitude of particle-selective changes in steady state surface concentrations in terms of the particle selectivity factor and the efficiency of sediment reworking. Unrecognized particle selectivity can lead to false inferences about changes in the rate of delivery of tracers to sediments. Selective CB recycling can cause a tracer such as 210Pb to be retained largely within the bioturbation zone, so that relatively little activity reaches the region of sediment useful for geochronological interpretation. Increased selectivity accentuates the sensitivity of the profile to details of the reworking process. The model, applied to previous studies of CB deposit feeders in tracer-labeled freshwater microcosms, shows the need to include particle diffusion as well as advection in the treatment of CB transport.

ROBBINS, J.A. Sediments of Saginaw Bay, Lake Huron: Elemental composition and accumulation rates. Special Report No. 102 of the Great Lakes Research Division, The University of Michigan, 109 pp. (1986).

During the period from 1975 through 1978, sediment cores and grab samples wee obtained from over 100 sites in lower Saginaw Bay. Selected samples were analyzed for grain size, organic and inorganic carbon, over 30 elements and both cesium-137 and lead-210. The study has revealed an extensive mud deposit in the lower bay covering about 400 km2 oriented approximately with bathymetric contours. The clay content of this deposit exceeds 50% toward the center with the mean grain size increasing toward deposit margins. Calcium family elements (Ca, Mg, and inorganic carbon) are preferentially concentrated at the southwestern end of the deposit either because of the distribution of source materials or because of prevailing currents in the system. In contrast, iron and organic carbon exhibit highest concentrations in sediments with highest content of clay-size particles. Most other elements, including contaminant metals (Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn) have surface concentrations which correlate strongly with concentrations of iron and organic carbon (r>0.9; N=30).

ROBBINS, J.A. The coupled lakes model for estimating the long-term response of the Great Lakes to time-dependent loadings of particle-associated contaminants. NOAA Technical Memorandum ERL GLERL-57, Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory, Ann Arbor, MI (PB85-237154) 41 pp. (1985).

The Coupled Lakes Model is a mathematical formalism and associated computer program for estimating the response of each of the Great Lakes to time-dependent loadings of tracers and contaminants. The model characterizes inputs arising from atmospheric delivery directly to the lakes and indirectly as losses from the drainage basins. The model treats the lakes as though instantaneously mixed and assumes equilibrium partitioning of constituents between water and suspended solids. Included in the formalism are the effects of particle settling, resuspension, mixed layer integration, radioactivity decay and other first-order biogeochemical losses. Cs-137 (cesium-137), and Pu-239/240 (plutonium-239/240), in combination with measured concentrations in water and in resuspended materials, provide an excellent preliminary calibration of the model.

SCAVIA, D., G.L. FAHNENSTIEL, M.S. Evans, D.J. Jude, and J.T. Lehman. Influence of salmonid predation and weather on long-term water quality trends in Lake Michigan. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 43(2):435-443 (1986).

Trends in Lake Michigan water quality over 1975-84 appear to reflect reduced nutrient loadings as indicated by gradual declines in spring total phosphorus (TP) and summer epilimnetic chlorophyll a (Chl a). Deviations from these trends during 1977 and 1983-84 were apparently caused by abiotic and biotic factors, respectively. Prolonged ice cover during 1977 decreased sediment resuspension resulting in lower TP, reduced Chl a levels, and increased water clarity. A similar dramatic result occurred in 1983 and to a lesser extent in 1984, but via a different mechanism. Burgeoning populations of stocked salmonines reduced populations of the planktivorous alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus), which allowed large Daphnia to flourish. Because the Daphnia are more voracious and nonselective grazers than the formerly dominant calanoid copepods, they reduced seston concentrations, causing dramatic increases in Secchi disk transparency. These exceptions demonstrate the far-reaching consequences that unusual weather conditions and fish management practices may have on water quality indicators.

SCAVIA, D., G.A. LAIRD, and G.L. FAHNENSTIEL. Production of planktonic bacteria in Lake Michigan. Limnology Oceanography 31(3):612-626 (1986).

Bacterial production rates were estimated for the surface waters of station 100-m deep in southeastern Lake Michigan during 1984. Production was calculated from incorporation of [3H-methyl]thymidine and from empirical conversion factors determined from dilution experiments performed throughout the study. The conversion factors (with typical C.V. <40%) varied between 4.7 and 18.3 x 109 cells produced per nanomole of thymidine incorporated into ice-cold trichloroacetic acid extracts. Our estimates yielded bacteria exponential growth rates between 0.05 and roacetic acid extracts. Our estimates yielded bacteria exponential growth rates between 0.05 and 0.24-1 (C.V. typically <50%) based on the empirical conversion factors. The growth estimates are much lower (0.004--0.020 h-1) when based on measured 47% thymidine incorporation into DNA and a theoretical conversion factor. The higher growth estimates appear more consistent with estimated grazing losses. Carbon flux estimates are less certain, due to the possible range of bacterial carbon content and growth efficiencies, but most of the higher growth estimates imply a bacterial carbon demand higher than concurrent 14C-based primary production measurements. This may mean that a source other than recent primary production is needed to meet this demand.

Schelske, C.L., E.F. Stoermer, G.L. FAHNENSTIEL, and M. Haibach. Phosphorus enrichment, silica utilization and biogeochemical silica depletion in the Great Lakes. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 43(2):407-415 (1986).

Our hypothesis that silica (Si) depletion in Lake Michigan and the severe Si depletion that characterizes the lower Great Lakes were induced by increased phosphorus (P) inputs was supported by bioassay experiments showing increased Si uptake by diatoms with relatively small P enrichments. We proposed that severe Si depletion (Si concentrations being reduced to <0.39 mg SiO2 x L-1 prior to thermal stratification) results when P levels are increased to the extent that increased diatom production reduces Si concentrations to limiting levels during the thermally mixed period. Large P enrichments such was those that characterized the eastern and central basis of Lake Erie and Lake Ontario in the early 1970s are necessary to produce severe Si depletion. It is clear that severe Si depletion in the lower lakes was produced by P enrichment because inflowing waters from Lake Huron have smaller P concentrations and larger Si concentrations than the outflowing waters of either Lake Erie or Lake Ontario. Severe Si depletion probably began in the 1940s or 1950s as the result of increased P loads from expanded sewering of an increasing urban population and the introduction of phosphate detergents. The model proposed for biogeochemical Si depletion is consistent with previous findings of high rates of internal recycling because, under steady-state condition for Si inputs, any increase in diatom production will produce an increase in permanent sedimentation of biogenic Si provided some fraction of the increased biogenic Si production is not recycled or unless there is a compensating increase in dissolution of diatoms.

SCHWAB, D.J., J.R. BENNETT, and E.W. LYNN. A two-dimensional lake wave prediction system. Environmental Software 1(1):4-9 (1986).

This report documents a series of computer programs for modeling circulation and water level fluctuations in well-mixed lakes. The FORTRAN code for three computer programs is included in an appendix. The programs are 1) a grid generation and modification program, 2) a free surface circulation model, and 3) a rigid lid circulation model. The models are based on the vertically-integrated shallow water equations and include Coriolis effects, but neglect nonlinear acceleration terms and horizontal diffusion of momentum.. The user of the programs is required to supply bathymetric data, initial conditions, external forcing function, and a subroutine to generate the desired output parameters. Other than these requirements, the programs are very general and can serve as a basis for developing more complex models. A sample run of each program is included in a second appendix.

SCHWAB, D.J., and P.C. LIU. Intercomparison of wave measurements obtained from a NOMAD buoy and from a WAVERIDER buoy in Lake Erie. Proceedings, MTS-IEEE Conference--Oceans 1985. Ocean Engineering and the Environment, San Diego, CA, November 12-14, 1985. 1131-1137 (1985).

Wave data recorded by a NOMAD buoy and a Waverider buoy in the west central basin of Lake Erie during September, October, and November 1984 are compared. Data include significant wave height, average wave period, wave spectra, and water temperature. The two systems were found to provide comparable estimates of wave height, wave period, and wave spectra only during periods when significant wave height exceeded 0.5 m. At lower wave heights, the NOMAD buoy gave slightly lower estimates of significant wave height than the Waverider. The Waverider processing system was unable to provide accurate spectral information for low wave heights because of aliasing. Water temperature measurements from the two systems were virtually identical.

Sicko-Goad, L., E.F. Stoermer, and G.L. FAHNENSTIEL. Rejuvenation of Melosira granulata (Bacilaariophyceae) resting cells from the anoxic sediments of Douglas Lake, Michigan. I. Light Microscopy and 14C uptake. Journal of Phycology 22:22-28 (1986).

Resting cells of Melosira granulata (Ehr.) Ralfs were collected from the anoxic sediments of Douglas Lake, Michigan. Sediment containing M. granulata was inoculated into distilled water and incubated in a growth chamber for one week during which observations were made on the cytological differentiation process. Cells classified as "condensed," i.e. containing a dark brown cytoplasmic mass were identified as resting cells. The differentiation process consisted of a series of gradual cytological changes that included elongation of the cytoplasmic mass and recognition of definable organelles to the point where the cells were non-distinguishable from water column vegetative cells. Differentiating cells accumulated large polyphosphate and lipid graules. However, these granules disappeared just prior to cell division. The complete differentiation or rejuvenation sequence occurred in some cells in less than 24 h. However, not all dormant cells rejuvenated at the same time and it was observed that the lag period for rejuvenation increased with resting cell age (depth of burial in sediments). In the 14C uptake studies, label was initially observed in condensed state cells. The label gradually progressed to the more differentiated forms. Total carbon uptake during the rejuvenation process was initially lower in the rejuvenating cells, but roughly equal to water column populations after 8 h, indicating a period of high metabolic activity in the rejuvenating cells between 1 and 8 h.

Simons, T.J., C.R. Murthy, and J.E. CAMPBELL. Winter circulation in Lake Ontario. Journal of Great Lakes Research 11(4):423-433 (1985).

Data from a high resolution array of self-recording current meters in a north-south cross section of Lake Ontario are presented. The measurements cover a 140-day period from 4 November 1982 to 23 march 1983. Nearshore current fluctuations are large and generally coherent with wind variations while currents in deep water tend to flow in the opposite direction and are quite uniform in the vertical. Time-averaged currents show a pronounced maximum of eastward flow along the south shore balanced by westward flow in the central part of the cross section, while the net transport near the northern shore tends to vanish. The total transport in the belt of eastward flow is ten times larger than the hydraulic transport associated with the Niagara-St. Lawrence flow, thus suggesting a recirculation of 90% of the river inflow. Corroboration of the south shore current measurements is provided by satellite-tracked drogues.

TARAPCHAK, S.J., and L.R. HERCHE. Perspectives in epilimnetic phosphorus cycling. Proceedings, Third International Conference, Environmental Quality and Ecosystem Stability, Z. Dubinsky and Y. Steinberger (eds.), Jerusalem, Israel, June 4, 1986. Bar Ilan University Press, Ramat-Gan, Israel, 3(A/B):245-255 (1986).

Production dynamics in surface waters of large phosphorus (P)-limited lakes are strongly affected by P recycling in the epilimnion. Several critical, unresolved problems in the lower food web have impeded progress in modeling epilimnetic P cycling. Specifically, orthophosphate (PO4) pool size and composition of the dissolved organic P (DOP) pool are unknown, and the P requirements of algae and particularly bacteria are unknown. Experimental results provide a new biological-based method to estimate true maximum possible orthophosphate (PO4) concentrations, to evaluate the gross chemical composition of DOP synthesized and released by algae, and to detect the P sources being used by phytoplankton and bacterial populations. Modified experimental and statistical procedures that allow accurate characterization of PO4 uptake performance by algae in the vicinity of ambient true PO4 concentrations are presented.

TARAPCHAK, S.J., and L.R. HERCHE. Phosphate uptake by microorganisms in lake water: Deviations from simple Michaelis-Menten kinetics. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 43(2):319-328 (1986).

Orthophosphate (31Pi) uptake rates by natural Lake Michigan microbial assemblages were measured to test a hypothesis that the instantaneous velocity of 31Pi uptake at low added substrate concentrations is higher than predicted by the simple Michaelis-Menten equation. Analysis of data from most experiments verified this prediction: 31Pi turnover times (Tcalc) obtained by back-extrapolating from "low" substrate regions in Woolf plots ranged from 25% to nearly 3000% of those calculated from "high" substrate regions. Simulation analysis demonstrated that deviation in Tcalc could be at least an order of magnitude higher than previously predicted. Large (>1000%) discrepancies from the simple Michaelis-Menten equation could be caused by "skewed" or "clumped" distributions, where the range in both species half-saturation constants (Kt) and relative abundances is very wide and species with the lowest Kt values are most abundant. A comparison of Kt values for mixed microbial assemblages in Lake Michigan (0.16-19.4 mg P x L-1) with those from laboratory culture studies (11-364 mg p x L-1) demonstrates that natural microbial populations have adapted to P-limited environments by synthesizing uptake systems that have Kt values at least an order of magnitude below those detected in culture studies.

TARAPCHAK, S.J., and C. Nalewajko. Introduction: Phosphorus-Plankton Dynamics Symposium. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 43(2):293-301 (1986).

Phosphorus-plankton dynamics is a scientifically challenging, continuously evolving discipline. Research historically has focused on the role of P as a limiting factor in primary and secondary production. Extensive efforts have been made to understand the eutrophication process, model P-limited phytoplankton growth, predict the outcome of species competition, and understand the regenerative mechanisms that resupply orthophosphate (Pi) to algae. Research on P in the Great Lakes has focused primarily on water quality monitoring programs and the use of P budget models to predict future changes in trophic state. However, to model production dynamics in the Great Lakes system accurately, studies on P cycling are urgently required. The P--Plankton Dynamics Symposium, composed of an international group of scientists working in marine and in freshwater systems, was convened to examine our current understanding of the field. To introduce the symposium papers, we briefly trace the development of scientific investigation into cultural eutrophication, identify major research themes and problems in P--plankton dynamics and in P cycling, and summarize basic and applied research on eutrophication and P cycling in the Great Lakes.

TARAPCHAK, S.J., and C. Nalewajko. Synopsis: Phosphorus-plankton dynamics symposium. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 43(2):416-419 (1986).

No abstract.

TARAPCHAK, S.J., and H.E. Wright. Effects of forest fire and other disturbances on wilderness lakes in northeastern Minnesota. I. Limnology. Arch. Hydrobiol. 106(2):177-202 (1986).

A wildfire in the early spring in the largely virgin forest of the Boundary Waers Canoe Area burned most of the coniferous watersheds of two lakes in largely granitic terrane. The chemical and biological limnology of the two lakes was followed for two years, starting immediately after the fire, and a third lake of comparable size nearby was used as a control. Results show that major ions, silica, and total nitrogen and phosphorus were not significantly different in the three lakes, implying that the runoff from the burned forest did not appreciably affect the two lakes in question. The same conclusion is reached from an analysis of algal biomass and phytoplanktonc composition.

VANDERPLOEG, H.A., G.A. LAIRD, J.R. LIEBIG, and W.S. GARDNER. Ammonium release by zooplankton in suspensions of heat-killed algae and an evaluation of the flow-cell method. Journal of Plankton Research 8(2):341-352 (1986).

The maximum excretion rate of NH4 (39 nmol mg dry wt-1 h-1) was directly measured for Daphnia pulex by measuring NH4 accumulation in bottles containing D. pulex and dense, satiating suspensions of heat-killed algae. Ammonium release rates in the algal suspensions were compared to those of individual animals removed from the suspension and placed in flow cells. Ammonium release rate, R (nmol mg dry wt-1 h-1), in the flow cell decreased very rapidly with time, t (min), after removal according to the relation R=26+25e-0.16t. Ammonium excretion obtained by the flow cell method after extrapolation to time zero was not significantly different from that obtained in the bottles. The considerable experiment-to-experiment variation in NH4 excretion was in large part correlated (r2 = 0.73) with the feeding rate on the algae.

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