GLERL Publications Abstracts: FY 1981
|Publications List Key
|Capitalized names represent GLERL authors.
|* = Not available from GLERL.
|** = Available in GLERL Library only.
AUBERT, E.J., and T.L. Richards. IFYGL--The International Field Year
for the Great Lakes. Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory,
Ann Arbor, MI, 410 pp. (1981).
AUBERT, E.J., and T.L. Richards. Summary of accomplishments. In IFYGL--The
International Field Year for the Great Lakes, E.J. Aubert and T.L.
Richards (eds.). Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory, Ann Arbor,
MI, 367-384 (1981). http://www.glerl.noaa.gov/pubs/fulltext/1981/19810010.pdf
BOLSENGA, S.J. Radiation transmittance through lake ice in the 400-700
nm range. Journal of Glaciology 27(95):57-66 (1981).
Significant new information on radiation transmittance through ice
in the photosynthetically active range (400-700 nm) has been collected
at an inland lake near Ann Arbor, Michigan, U.S.A., and at one site
on the Great Lakes (lat. 46o 46' N., long. 84o
57' W.). Radiation transmittance through clear, refrozen slush, and
brash ice varied according to snow cover, ice type, atmospheric conditions,
and solar altitude. Snow cover caused the greatest diminution of radiation.
During periods of snow melt, radiation transmittance through snow-covered
ice surfaces increased slightly. Moderate diurnal variations of radiation
transmittance (about 5%) are attributed to solar altitude changes and
associated changes in the direct-diffuse balance of solar radiation
combined with the type of ice surface studied. Variations in radiation
transmittance of nearly 20% over short periods of time are attributed
to abrupt changes from a clear to a cloudy atmosphere. A two-layer reflectance-transmittance
model illustrates the interaction of layers in an ice cover such as
snow or frost overlying clear ice. Upper layers of high reflectance
have considerable control on the overall transmittance and reflectance
of an ice cover.
BOLSENGA, S.J. Spectral reflectances of freshwater ice and snow from
340 through 1100 nm. Ph.D. dissertation. The University of Michigan, Ann
CHAMBERS, R.L., and B.J. EADIE. Nepheloid and suspended particulate matter
in southeastern Lake Michigan. Sedimentology 28:439-447 (1981).
A persistent benthic nepheloid layer with high total suspended matter
(TSM) and high total particulate surface area was observed in south-eastern
Lake Michigan. The layer thickens from a few meters near the shelf-slope
boundary to greater than 10 m at the base of the slope. When compared
to the hypolimnion, TSM increases by a factor of 2-20 at 1 m above the
bottom, the greatest increase detected at the slope-basin boundary.
Sediment trap profiles within the nepheloid layer show that the particulate
flux increases exponentially from about 10 m above the bottom to 1 m
above the bottom, suggesting that a large fraction of the collected
material came from resuspension. A nepheloid layer is created during
the formation of the thermal bar and maintained during the stratified
period, apparently through the action of weak but persistent currents.
This layer is supplemented by lakeward transport of fine particles resuspended
near the shelf-slope boundary due to impingement of the thermocline
on the bottom, or during higher energy events.
CHAPRA, S.C. Application of phosphorus loading models to river-run lakes
and other incompletely mixed systems. In Restoration of Lakes and Inland
Waters, Report No. EPA 440/5-81-010, Environmental Protection Agency,
Washington, DC, 329-334 (1980).
Theoretical calculations are used to demonstrate how river-run reservoirs
tend to retain a larger fraction of their phosphorus loading than completely
mixed lakes due to the effect of incomplete mixing on the sedimentation
process. Empirical models are used to demonstrate the correlation between
flushing characteristics and sedimentation. Enhanced settling is also
ascribed to the higher proportion of solid-associated phosphorus in
the loadings of incompletely mixed systems. The importance of solids
to lake phosphorus budgets is demonstrated with a nutrient/phytoplankton
model for a river-run lake.
CHAPRA, S.C., and H.F.H. Dobson. Quantification of the lake trophic typologies
of Naumann (surface quality) and Thienemann (oxygen) with special reference
to the Great Lakes. Journal of Great Lakes Research 7(2):182-193
Separate trophic scales and indices are developed for two of the most
significant symptoms of eutrophication: surface water quality and hypolimnetic
dissolved oxygen depletion. The scales are make comparable by expressing
them in dimensionless form with a lower bound of zero and a mesotrophic
range from 5 to 10. In this way, the two symptoms can be compared and
their relative importance judged. This is done for the Great Lakes with
the result that for both scales Lakes Superior, Huron, and Michigan
are classified as mesotrophic in terms of surface water quality, they
range from eutrophic (central Lake Erie) to oligotrophic (Lake Ontario)
on the oxygen scale. This is because, although these lakes are similar
in surface water quality, their hypolimnion thicknesses range from approximately
4 m for central Lake Erie to 70 m for Lake Ontario. Because of its shallowness,
western Lake Erie does not have a persistent oxygen problem. In terms
of surface quality it is classified as eutrophic. We have attempted
to relate the two scales by correlating surface primary production and
areal depletion rate. The results indicate that for lakes of similar
primary production, areal oxygen depletion is directly proportional
to hypolimnion thickness.
*CROLEY, T.E.II. Hydrologic and hydraulic calculation in BASIC for
small computers. Iowa Institute of Hydraulic Research, The University
of Iowa, Iowa City, IA, 263 pp. (1980).
**CROLEY, T.E.II. Synthetic-hydrograph computations on small programmable
calculators. Iowa Institute of Hydraulic Research, The University
of Iowa, Iowa City, IA, 837 pp. (1980).
CROLEY, T.E., II, A.R. Giaquinta, and R.A. Woodhouse. River thermal standard
costs in the upper midwest. Journal of the Energy Division, ASCE
CROLEY, T.E., II, and B. Hunt. Multiple-valued and non-convergent solutions
in kinematic cascade models. Journal of Hydrology 49:121-138 (1981).
The Lax--Wendroff finite-difference solution of the equations of motion
with the kinematic flow approximation is now widely used in hydrology
in cascade models of overland flow. The physical relevance of kinematic
shocks and the stability and convergence of the finite-difference solution
are problems that are often undetected in contemporary applications
due to the complexity of model inputs. Past criteria, developed for
discerning either the presence of a shock or the adequacy of finite-difference
solutions, are inadequate for complex cascade models. A general method
is devised for locating the point along a cascade segment where the
solution first becomes multiple-valued, for the lateral inflow situation.
An example comparison with an exact solution reveals that stable, finite-difference
solutions apparently converge to single-valued hydrographs and water
surface profiles with spurious peaks that can go undetected in complex
models. Finally, shock propagation and the potential for error growth
in cascade models are discussed.
DERECKI, J.A., and R.N. KELLEY. Improved St. Clair River dynamic flow
models and comparison analysis. NOAA Technical Memorandum ERL GLERL-34,
Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory, Ann Arbor, MI (PB82-119272)
36 pp. (1981). http://www.glerl.noaa.gov/ftp/publications/tech_reports/glerl-034/
The St. Clair River dynamic flow models, modified to provide better
channel definition, to include additional discharge measurements for
model calibration, and to incorporate wind stress effects on river flows,
are described and compared for daily flow differences resulting from
channel definition improvements, wind effect, time scale effects, and
a combination of these factors. All the St. Clair River models are derived
for the upper river channel, spanning approximately one-third of the
river. Model 1, with the steepest river slope, is for the headwaters
(upper) reach; Model 2 overlaps most of the same reach, but starts farther
down the river; finally, Model 3, with reduced slope, covers the lower
reach. Model improvements due to additional measurements and better
channel definition produced somewhat higher river flows, averaging 3
percent and 4 percent for the upper and lower models, respectively.
The effects of wind stress and the selection of daily or hourly computational
time scales are generally insignificant, with highest effects for the
lower model, where wind produced a small increase (1 percent) in the
number of days with significant flow differences. This difference is
defined as a flow difference in excess of 2 percent of the total flow,
which represents practical accuracy for flow measurements. The largest
flow differences are obtained from comparisons of different models,
with only a small influence exerted by various model configurations
(wind, time number of days with significant flow differences for all
comparisons between various models was 45 percent, varying between 54
percent, 48 percent, and 35 percent for Models 1-2, 1-3, and 2-3, respectively.
These large percentages of days with significant flow differences are
reduced drastically for higher percent flow differences (10-percent
average at the 5-percent level) and are caused to a large extent by
ice effects during winter. Generally, the accuracy of various models
is compatible within, 5 percent of flow for the open-water season, but
may exceed 15 percent of flow for the ice-cover season because of ice
effects. Model 1, with the upper gage nearly on the lake and the steepest
river slope, is less susceptible to ice effects and is considered more
accurate for the ice-cover season than the other two models, which are
progressively more susceptible to ice effects.
Donovan, M., C.A. Job, and W.C. SONZOGNI. The Milwaukee pollution case--Implications
for water resources planning. Water Resources Bulletin 17(1):23-28
The Illinois v. Milwaukee Federal District Court decision is the most
far reaching application yet of the federal common law of nuisance to
interstate water pollution conflicts. Although a Federal Appellate Court
recently rescinded part of the district court decision, Milwaukee must
still upgrade its metropolitan sewage system to a level beyond that
required by federal and state regulations. The improvements must be
completed with or without federal aid. The case points out the apparent
inability of the Clean Water Act, the most comprehensive federal legislation
affecting the nation's water quality, to deal with certain interstate
water quality conflicts. The Milwaukee decision could set a precedent
for similar settlements elsewhere which may in turn affect the U.S.
Environmental Protection Agency's water quality clean up program. A
more integrated, ecosystem conscious approach to management of shared
water resources (e.g., the Great Lakes) would help reduce the need for
court decisions like Illinois v. Milwaukee.
EADIE, B.J. An equilibrium model for the partitioning of synthetic organic
compounds: Formulation and calibration. NOAA Technical Memorandum ERL
GLERL-35, Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory, Ann Arbor, MI
(PB82-116682) 39 pp. (1981). http://www.glerl.noaa.gov/ftp/publications/tech_reports/glerl-035/
An equilibrium toxic organic distribution model has been designed.
This simple model, needing only information on the contaminants, water
solubility, and vapor pressure, yields useful information on the distribution
of environmentally persistent organic contaminants. The model was calibrated
for total DDT in three ecosystems: a representative coastal regime,
Lake Michigan, and a global system. There are some discrepancies between
model output and available data; while the model calibrated well for
the coastal regime and the Lake Michigan ecosystem, it failed for the
global ecosystem. This is presumably because of the uneven application
of DDT and the large biomass of terrestrial plants, which are relatively
uncontaminated. Owing to its low vapor pressure, DDT has not and will
not come to a global equilibrium. The Lake Michigan model was also run
for four other organic contaminants, which span several orders of magnitude
in solubility and vapor pressure. These will be discussed, as will sensitivity
of the model to input parameters.
Fraser, A.S., and A. ROBERTSON. Materials balance. In IFYGL--The International
Field Year for the Great Lakes, E.J. Aubert and T.L. Richards (eds.).
Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory, Ann Arbor, MI, 341-352
GARDNER, W.S., and B.J. EADIE. Chemical factors controlling phosphorus
cycling in lakes. In Nutrient Cycling in the Great Lakes: A Summarization
of Factors Regulating the Cycling of Phosphorus, Special Report No. 83,
D. Scavia and R.A. Moll (eds.). Great Lakes Research Division, The University
of Michigan, Ann Arbor, 13-34 (1980).
GARDNER, W.S., B.J. EADIE, and W.H. Miller. Microtechnique to remove
particles from high performance liquid chromatographic samples. Journal
of Liquid Chromatography 3(10):1585-1592 (1980).
A high speed (13,000 x G) microhematocrit centrifuge rapidly (1 min)
removes particles from small (10-60 mL) volumes of sample solution prior
to high performance liquid chromatographic analysis. The described technique,
using glass capillary tubes, effectively cleans up aqueous biochemical
solutions and/or concentrates of environmental samples. Advantages of
the method are speed, small sample size, and moderate equipment costs.
GARDNER, W.S., W.H. Miller, and M.J. Imlay. Free amino acids in mantle
tissues of the bivalve Amblema plecata: Possible relation to environmental
stress. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
One problem in assessing pollutant effects on freshwater ecosystems
is recognizing subtle signs of stress in perturbed systems. If contaminants
or abnormal conditions affect homeostatic mechanisms that control concentrations
of biochemicals in organisms, measurements of affected metobolites in
normal and stressed organisms may provide a means for evaluating degraded
aquatic habitats. Changes in amino acid rations (e.g. glycine: taurine)
and amounts of marine bivalves have been observed in response to a variety
of pollutants (JEFFRIES 1972; BAYNE et al. 1976; ROESIJADI & ANDERSON
1979; ROESIJADI 1979). The changes of free amino acid patterns in tissues
of freshwater bivalves can reflect adverse conditions in stream habitats.
Objectives of this investigation were to determine the composition and
concentrations of free amino acids in mantle tissues of Amblema plicata
and to examine this hypothesis for A. plicata in selected polluted and
relatively unpolluted Missouri streams. This species was chosen because
it is robust, long-lived (up to 30 years), and wide spread in clean
and polluted streams of the United States (STANSBERRY 1971; BURCH 1975;
IMLAY 1980). Mussels are attractive bioindicator organisms for freshwater
ecosystems because they normally do not migrate extensively within or
from their native streams (ISELY 1914; IMLAY 1980), and as filter feeders
they are exposed to particular components that can sorb toxic materials,
as well as to dissolved substances in water (CHAISEMARTIN 1977).
GARDNER, W.S., and W.H. Miller. Intracellular composition and net release
rates of free amino acids in Daphnia magna. Canadian Journal
of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 38(2):157-162 (1981).
Excretion of free amino acids and ammonia by Daphnia magna was
measured by examining in vitro changes in concentration of the two forms
of nitrogen over 4-6 h. Mean weight-specific amino acid release rate
(+/- SE) for 32 healthy daphnids was 0. 13 +/- 0.03 nmol (mg dry wt)-1
- h-1 as compared with a mean ammonia excretion rate of 21
+/- 2 nmol (mg dry wt)-l x h-1. Net removal from
solution was observed when low levels of amino acids (2 nmol/8 mL) were
added to the water before incubation, indicating that measured net release
rates could be reduced by amino acid uptake. Toxic levels (0.5 mg x
L-1) of lead, arsenic, Kepone, toxaphene, malathion, or pentachlorophenol,
added to stress the animals, did not significantly affect release rates
of amino acids or ammonia, but the addition of copper (as CuSO4)
increased amino acid release by daphnids and hindered microbial removal
of amino acids from incubation waters. Amino acids released from copper-exposed
animals were similar in composition to those in intracellular amino
acid pools of D. magna, suggesting that diffusion across cell
membranes may have been the mechanism for amino acid release.
GARDNER, W.S., and W.H. Miller. Reverse-phase liquid chromatographic
analysis of amino acids after reaction with o-phthalaldehyde. Analytical
Biochemistry 101:61-65 (1981).
A reverse-phase separation technique was used to determine the binding
of 14C-radiolabeled organic pollutants [benzo[a]pyrene, anthracene,
biphenyl, p,p'-DDT, 2,4,5,2',4',5'-hexachlorobiphenyl, 2,5,2',5'-tetrachlorobiphenyl,
and bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate] to humic materials in aqueous solution.
The humic-bound pollutant was separated from the "freely dissolved"
pollutant by suing a Sep-Pak C-18 cartridge; humic-bound pollutant passed
through, while the unbound pollutants were retained by the column. The
partition coefficient (grams of pollutant bound/gram of organic carbon)/(grams
of pollutant freely dissolved/milliliter) did not depend on pollutant
concentration but was inversely proportional to the concentration of
dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in solution. At low DOC (1-2 mg of Aldrich
humic acids L-1), the partition coefficient was approximately equal
to the octanol-water partition coefficient and inversely proportional
to water solubility. The partition coefficient for natural waters was
solubility. The partition coefficient for natural waters was approximately
1 order of magnitude lower than that determined for the Aldrich humics
at similar DOC concentrations. The reverse-phase separation was simple
and rapid and gave results similar to dialysis techniques.
GARDNER, W.S., T.F. NALEPA, M.A. QUIGLEY, and J.M. MALCZYK. Release of
phosphorus by certain benthic invertebrates. Canadian Journal of Fisheries
and Aquatic Sciences 38(8):978-981 (1981).
Phosphate release rates by Stylodrilus heringianus, tubificids,
and Chironomus spp. were quantified in laboratory experiments
by incubating the animals in wet sand under two temperature regimes
(5 and 20oC) and under two nutritional states (full and empty guts).
Inorganic phosphorus release rates (+/-se) for animals incubated 24
h ranged from 0.12 +/- 0.02 (n = 5) nmol phosphorus (P) x (mg ash-free
dry weight)-1 x h-1 for S. heringianus beginning with
cleared guts at 5oC to 0.81 +/- 0.09 (n =5) nmol P x (mg ash-free dry
weight)-1 x h-1 for chironomids beginning with full guts
at 20oC. Calculations based on total invertebrate biomass
and mean basal release rate suggested that benthic invertebrate excretion
could account for most P released from aerobic Lake Michigan sediments.
GARDNER, W.S., and D. SCAVIA. Kinetic examination of nitrogen release
by zooplankters. Limnology and Oceanography 26:801-810 (1981).
Kinetics of nitrogen release by Daphnia magna (0.2-0.4 mg dry
wt) and Daphnia pulex (ca. 0.03 mg dry wt) were followed by measuring
ammonium (plus primary amines) in water flowing past individual animals.
Culture media water was pumped slowly (6 ml x h-1) through an incubation
chamber (volume 0.05 ml) containing a daphnid and then either mixed
with o-phthalaldehyde reagent for continuous analysis of nitrogen compounds
or passed into a sample loop of an ammonium analyzer for measurements
of ammonium release at discrete intervals. Within the resolution of
the technique (3 min), nutrient regeneration appeared continuous rather
than pulsed. Highest rates of ammonium release, 44 nmol x (mg dry wt)-1
x h-1 (SE=5, N=8), were typically observed immediately after the animals
were removed from food. Regeneration rates for D. Magna gradually
decreased during the first hour to a mean steady state rate of 11 nmol
x (mg dry wt)-1 x h-1 (SE=2, N=8).
GASKILL, D.W. Homogeneity analysis of seasonal mean temperature series
at 25 stations around the Great Lakes. NOAA Data Report ERL GLERL-18,
Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory, Ann Arbor, MI (PB81-210437)
11 pp. (1981).
The homogeneity of seasonal mean temperature series oat 25 stations
around the Great Lakes is assessed. Historical documentation of inhomogeneities
and graphical analysis and statistical tests for homogeneity are made
for each station series in a data set available at the World Data Center-A
for Glaciology. When statistical tests are significant in at least one
season, the magnitude of the inhomogeneity is estimated for all four
Giaquinta, A.R., and T.E. CROLEY. Impact of thermal standards on power
plant water consumption. Water Resources Bulletin 17:423-430 (1981).
Power plant water consumption (evaporative water loss) for various
river temperature standards is presented for existing and proposed power
plants located along the Missouri and Upper Mississippi Rivers in the
MAPP geographical area. Thermodynamic and economic models are combined
to evaluate the cooling related water consumption at various river thermal
standards. The existing thermal standards and a number of other hypothetical
thermal regulations including the extreme cases of no thermal standards
and no allowable heated discharges are examined to show the dependence
on thermal standards of power production related water consumption.
A critical appraisal of the cost of thermal standards in terms of water
consumption is thereby possible so that subjective assessments of the
standards can proceed with full knowledge of the tradeoffs involved
between the "water costs" of power production and environmental enhancement.
GREAT LAKES ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH LABORATORY. Annual Report for the
Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory, FY 1980. Great Lakes
Environmental Research Laboratory, Ann Arbor, MI, 31 pp. (1980).
GREAT LAKES ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH LABORATORY. Detailed technical plan
for the Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory. Great Lakes Environmental
Research Laboratory, Ann Arbor, MI, 205 pp. (1981).
GREAT LAKES ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH LABORATORY. Technical plan for the
Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory. Great Lakes Environmental
Research Laboratory, Ann Arbor, MI, 67 pp. (1981).
*GREAT LAKES ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH LABORATORY, and The University of
Michigan. First annual progress report to the Office of Marine Pollution
Assessment, NOAA. In The Cycling of Toxic Organic Substances in the
Great Lakes Ecosystem, Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory,
Ann Arbor, MI, 65 pp. (1980).
*GREAT LAKES ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH LABORATORY, and The University of
Michigan. Second semiannual progress report to the Office of Marine Pollution
Assessment, NOAA. In The Cycling of Toxic Organic Substances in the
Great Lakes Ecosystem, Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory,
Ann Arbor, MI, 19 pp. (1981).
GREENE, G.M. Simulation of ice-cover growth and decay in one dimension
on the upper St. Lawrence River. NOAA Technical Memorandum ERL GLERL-36,
(PB82-114208) 82 pp. (1981). http://www.glerl.noaa.gov/ftp/publications/tech_reports/glerl-036/
A series of models are presented for simulating the growth and decay
of channel ice in one dimension on the upper St. Lawrence River. By
assuming simplified boundary conditions and a linear temperature gradient
in the ice layer, I have been able to treat the theory of ice growth
analytically, producing the first group of models. A less abstract approach
was taken in the construction of a deterministic surface energy balance
model. This model simulates the relevant energy fluxes at the upper
and lower boundaries of the snow/ice cover on the river. In addition,
the model simulates the diffusion of heat through the ice layer, permitting
the absorption of shortwave radiation within the ice and the use of
a model time step of less than 24 h. A general description of ice growth
and decay is given for the reach of the river between the Moses-Saunders
Power Dam at Cornwall, Ont., and Lake Ontario. Simulation sites in both
slow moving and faster reaches of the river are discussed. Over the
winter of 1975-76, the analytic model produced results well correlated
with observed ice thickness during growth. During decay, the results
simulated in a slow moving reach are much closer to observed thickness
than are those simulated in a faster reach. The energy balance model
simulates a maximum ice thickness that is 75 percent of the observed
thickness. In addition, the simulated maximum thickness occurs 2 weeks
later than the observed maximum. These shortcomings appear to be caused
by model node geometry and by the absence of turbulent heat transfer
between the ice and the river. The model does simulate ice-cover breakup
within the period when breakup was observed to occur. Sensitivity analysis
of the model suggests that the simulated results are most sensitive
to variations in air temperature., water temperature, and net radiation.
Thermodynamic processes appear to be sufficient to produce breakup without
the additional simulation of mechanical forces.
**GREENE, G.M. Simulation of ice-cover growth and thermal decay on the
upper St. Lawrence River. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Michigan,
Ann Arbor, Ann Arbor, MI, (1981).
Four computer models are described that simulate the growth and thermal
decay of the ice cover that forms on the upper St. Lawrence river. The
first two models are based on analytic solutions to equations describing
the transfer of heat within an ice cover with uniform properties. The
first model was applied during the growth period and did not include
turbulent heat transfer from the river water at the lower boundary.
Model results can be compared to observed ice cover thicknesses at two
sites over the 1975-76 winter. The maximum was 65 cm. In both a slow-moving
reach (0.4 ms-1) and a faster reach (1.5 ms-1), simulated ice cover
thicknesses fell within 3 cm of the observed thicknesses. The analytic
melt model does incorporate turbulent heat transfer beneath the ice
cover. In the slow moving reach, the model consistently over-predicted
the rate of melting, leading to breakup two days prior to the observed
date. The over-prediction was even more severe in the fast-moving reach.
A third model is described which combines a surface energy balance solution
for a surface temperature with a finite-difference implicit heat diffusion
scheme that permits non-linear temperature gradients in the ice. In
this model, shortwave radiation can be absorbed within the ice cover.
When applied to the 1975-76 winter, the model produced a simulated date
of maximum ice cover thickness that was 2 weeks later than was observed.
The simulated maximum thickness was only 75 percent of that observed.
Simulated breakup occurs 2 days later than the observed date. The fourth
model incorporates elements from the first three models. A surface temperature
is derived from computations of the surface energy fluxes. This temperature
then becomes an upper boundary condition for an analytic model that
includes turbulent heat transfer beneath the ice cover. This model best
approximates the observed rates of growth and decay if one assumes a
frazil ice layer beneath the ice cover so that the water temperature
close to the lower boundary can be set close to 0oC. Sensitivity testing
of this model shows that it is relatively insensitive to the forcing
meteorological variables but is sensitive to changes in the ice thermal
properties as well as the water temperature and velocity.
Heidtke, T.M., W.C. SONZOGNI, and L. Botts. Great Lakes environmental
planning study: Summary report. Great Lakes Basin Commission Great Lakes
Environmental Planning Study (GLEPS) Report, 21 pp. (1981).
LANDRUM, P.F., and D.G. Crosby. Comparison of the disposition of several
nitrogen-containing compounds in the sea urchin and other marine invertebrates.
Xenobiotica 11(5):351-361 (1981).
The disposition of an aromatic amine and three aromatic nitro compounds
was investigated in the sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus.
The sea urchin rapidly eliminated injected compounds. The elimination
rate constants decreased in the order p-toluidine>p-nitroanisole=p-nitrophenol>p-nitrotoluene.
The fraction of total injected compound eliminated in 8h was lowerst
Biotransformation for the sea urchin was primarily reduction of the
nitro group followed by acetylation of the amine. Other animals, starfish,
sea cucumber, gum boot chiton, and mussels injected with p-nitroanisole
exhibited a trend toward ocidative biotransformation. Elimination of
parent compound was the major pathway for reducing body burden of xenobiotices
for the invertebrates studies. p-toluidine oxidizes during analysis
and was thus not suitable for studying biotransformation.
LANDRUM, P.F., and D.G. Crosby. The disposition of p-Nitroanisole by
the sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus - II. Biotransformation
and Bioconcentration. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 5:240-254
Biotransformation and bioconcentration of p-nitroanisole (PNA)
in sea urchins, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, was studied using
short-term exposures in static and dynamic, flowing water, studies and
under steady-state conditions. The metabolic pathway was characterized
by reduction of the nitro group with subsequent acetylation of the formed
p-anisidine. The extent of metabolism was less than 2.5% of the
excreted material, total excretion 73 ±11%. The metabolism varied
with season, corresponding to the reproductive cycle, and with length
of time held in the laboratoary. The PNA had a relative weight of distribution
(analagous to volume of distrubiton) of 1.73 ± 0.95 and the gonads
acted as the storage site. The bioconcentration factor for PNA was 6.1
± 4.7 and had a range of 1.9-25.9. The bioconcentration factor
also varied with the reproductive cycle of the sea urchin. The sea urchin
demonstrated a decreased excretion of PNA with an increase in metabolism
which implies that long-term exposure to PNA could be potentially harmful.
These studies along with the kinetics demonstrated the usefulness of
our testing protocol to distinguish the differences in the disposition
of PNA in the sea urchin under different physiological states.
LANDRUM, P.F., and D.G. Crosby. The disposition of p-Nitroanisole by
the sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus - I. Kinetics. Ecotoxicology
and Enviromental Safety 5:225-239 (1981).
Investigation of the disposition kinetics of p-nitroanisole (PNA) by
the sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, demonstrated the usefulness
of our proposed protocol for assessing the disposition of xenobiotics
in aquatic species. The protocol consists of four steps: toxicity rangefinding,
acute static, dynamic (Flowing water) and steady-state investigations
of xenobiotic metabolism, and kinetics. Elimination kinetics from acute
static investigations fit the form dQw/dt = K1Qa,
where Qw is the quantity of compound in the water, Qa
the quantity in the animal, K1 the elimination rate constant,
and K2 the uptake rate constant. Estimates of the elimination
and uptake rate constants were 0.57 +/- 0.23 and 0.09 +/- 0.05 hr-1
(n = 32), respectively, for studies covering 1.5 years. A simpler method
for estimating these rate constants is described. The elimination half-life
was dependent on time held after collection and season, corresponding
to the reproductive cycle. Steady-state studies indicated that the elimination
of PNA is an active process. The turnover rate constant (1.3 +/- 0.6
hr-1) was not different from the acute elimination rate constant. Overall
the rapid elimination of PNA and the rapid approach to steady state
(approximately 8 hr) will be the prime factors in the fate of PNA in
sea urchins. For short-term exposure, upon termination the sea urchin
will rapidly and actively eliminate the compound. For chronic, long-term
exposures, the sea urchin will rapidly achieve steady state and the
fate will be dependent upon biotransformation.
LANDRUM, P.F., and J.P. Giesy. Chapter 22. Anomalous breakthrough of
benzo(a)pyrene during concentration with Amberlite XAD-4 resin from aqueous
solutions. In Advances in the Identification and Analysis of Organic
Pollutants in Water, Volume I, L.H. Keith (ed.). Ann Arbor Science,
Ann Arbor, MI, 345-355 (1981).
LESHKEVICH, G.A. Categorization of northern Green Bay ice cover using
LANDSAT-1 digital data--A case study. NOAA Technical Memorandum ERL GLERL-33,
Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory, Ann Arbor, MI (PB81-200438)
19 pp. (1981). http://www.glerl.noaa.gov/ftp/publications/tech_reports/glerl-033/
Northern Green Bay ice cover on February 13, 1975, was analyzed using
LANDSAT 1 digital data on the computer facilities at the Environmental
Research Institute of Michigan. Training sets, consisting of selected
areas in the LANDSAT scene that represent various ice types, were entered
based upon the tone, texture, and location of the ice within the bay.
The classification algorithm used in the analysis consisted of a modified
maximum likelihood procedure using the multivariate Gaussian probability
density function. It was found that seven ice types could be differentiated
in the ice cover, that new (thin) ice could be distinguished from water,
and that ice could be distinguished from relatively thin cloud cover.
Training set statistics and area tabulations were generated and a color
coded categorized image was produced. Recommendations are made for future
LESHKEVICH, G.A. Lake Superior ice cycle--1979 (16-mm film, 12 min.).
Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory, Ann Arbor, MI, (1981).
LIU, P.C., and D.B. Ross. Airborne measurements of wave growth for stable
and unstable atmospheres in Lake Michigan. Journal of Physical Oceanography
10(11):1842-1853 (1980). http://www.glerl.noaa.gov/pubs/fulltext/1980/19800002.pdf
This paper presents the results of a joint program combining airborne
laser profilometer and Waverider buoy measurements of synoptic wave
conditions in Lake Michigan during the passage of an intense cold front.
Measurements were made both before and after passage of the front under
different atmospheric stabilities. The results demonstrate the distinctive
role stability plays in wave growth processes. Specifically, it is evident
that the wind speed and fetch distance required to generate the same
wave conditions are less for an unstable atmosphere than for a stable
atmosphere. Therefore, an unstable atmosphere is usually accompanied
by higher waves for the same 10 m winds. Fetch-limited wave growth is
seen to follow stable or unstable quasi-equilibrium relations between
corresponding wave-energy and peak-energy frequency parameters. Synoptic
wave height maps for Lake Michigan have been prepared from the measured
McCORMICK, M.J., and D. SCAVIA. Calculation of vertical profiles of lake-averaged
temperature and diffusivity in Lakes Ontario and Washington. Water
Resources Research 17(2):305-310 (1981).
By using statistical analysis of temperature observations and model
calculations, the common parameterization of vertical eddy diffusivity
(k) in terms of the gradient Richardson number (Ri) is simplified. The
simpler formulation accurately reproduces seasonal variations in temperature
profiles from Lakes Ontario and Washington. Energy arguments support
use of the simplified parameterization and suggest use of a modified
Ri in calculating k. The new expression for k resulted
in more realistic estimates of thermocline k. The modeling of
free convective mixing in Lake Ontario by heat conservation resulted
in excessive temperatures in the hypolimnion during fall overturn.
Monteith, T.J., and W.C. SONZOGNI. Variations in U.S. Great Lakes tributary
flows and loadings. Great Lakes Basin Commission Great Lakes Environmental
Planning Study (GLEPS) Report #47 (1981).
Monteith, T.J., R.A.C. Sullivan, T.M. Heidtke, and W.C. SONZOGNI. Watershed
handbook: A management technique for choosing among point and nonpoint
control strategies. Report prepared for the U.S. Environmental Protection
Agency by the Great Lakes Basin Commission and the Great Lakes Environmental
Research Laboratory under Interagency Agreement No. AD-85-F-0-061-0, Ann
Arbor, MI, 107 pp. (1981).
NALEPA, T.F., and M.A. QUIGLEY. The macro- and meiobenthos of southeastern
Lake Michigan near the mouth of the Grand River, 1978-79. NOAA Data Report
ERL GLERL-19, Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory, Ann Arbor,
MI (PB82-111642) 7 pp. (1981).
This report is the second of a two-part series that presents the basic
results of a benthos sampling program in southeastern Lake Michigan.
Sediment cores were collected at monthly intervals from May to November
1978 and 1970 by divers using SCUBA. Sampling was conducted at two stations
located at the 11-12 m depth interval. Organisms retained on screens
with aperture openings of 595 mm, 250 mm, 106 mm, and 45 mm were counted
and identified to the lowest practical taxonomic level. Results are
presented in two tables that give the following data: (1) abundance
of each taxa in each replicate core (2) dry weight biomass (mg) of the
major benthic groups in each replicate core. Supplementary tables of
1976-77 sample data are also provided. These tables give the density
and dry weight of epibenthic crustaceans collected in both the sediments
and in the overlying waters (water in core tube). The first data report
(Nalepa and Quigley 1980) gave the density and dry weight of only those
collected in the sediments.
NALEPA, T.F., and A. ROBERTSON. Screen mesh size affects estimates of
macro- and meiobenthos abundance and biomass in the Great Lakes. Canadian
Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 38(9):1027-1034 (1981).
The efficiencies of screens with mesh openings of 595 and 106 mm in
retaining, respectively, the macro- and meio-benthos were measured for
samples taken in southeastern Lake Michigan. The use of these screens
provides adequate estimates of dry weight biomass for both the macro-
and meio-benthos, but serious underestimates of the numbers of many
taxa, most notably naidids, enchytraeids, chironomids, nematodes, and
rotifers, can result. For chironomids, retention on the 595-mm screen
varied by species, with overall retention being closely related to both
body length and head capsule width. Retention for certain macro-benthic
taxa was significantly related to sampling date and water depth, indicating
that future studies concerned with these variables should use mesh sizes
small enough to retain all (or almost all) of the individuals of the
taxa of interest.
NALEPA, T.F., and A. ROBERTSON. Vertical distribution of the zoobenthos
in southeastern Lake Michigan with evidence of seasonal ariation. Freshwater
Biology 11:87-96 (1981).
The vertical distribution of the zoobenthos in southeastern Lake Michigan
was investigated monthly from May to November 1976. The organisms could
be divided into two categories: one in which the majority of the population
occurred in the upper 1 cm of substrate (Pontoporeia, naidids, chironomids,
cyclopoids, harpacticoids, cladocerans, turbellarians, ostracods, rotifers,
sphaeriids and gastropods) and one in which the majority of the population
occurred deeper (immature tubificids without hair setae, Stylodrilus
heringianus, echytraeids, nematodes, and tarigrades). The vertical distribution
of these infaunal forms showed a marked seasonal variation. They were
found in the superficial sediments in the spring, but deeper in the
sediments in the autumn. This trend coincided with the seasonal occurrence
of a detrital layer that overlay the sandy substrate in the spring but
was absent in the autumn.
NALEPA, T.F., D.S. White, C.M. Pringle, and M.A. QUIGLEY. The biological
component of phosphorus exchange and cycling in lake sediments. In Nutrient
Cycling in the Great Lakes: A Summarization of Factors Regulating the
Cycling of Phosphorus, D. Scavia and R.A. Moll (eds.). Special Report
No. 83, Great Lakes Research Division, The University of Michigan, Ann
Arbor, MI, 93-109 (1980).
PINSAK, A.P., R.C. Hore, and D.J. Vallery. Consumptive water use. In
Great Lakes Diversions and Consumptive Uses: Report to the International
Joint Commission by the International Great Lakes Diversions and Consumptive
Uses Study Board, U.S. Department of the Army, Corps of Engineers,
Sec 6, Detroit, MI, 1-56 (1981).
PINSAK, A.P., and G.K. Rodgers. Energy balance. In IFYGL--The International
Field Year for the Great Lakes, E.J. Aubert and T.L. Richards (eds.).
Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory, Ann Arbor, MI, 169-197
PRESTON, C.N. Great Lakes precipitation, 1854-74. GLERL Open File Report,
Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory, Ann Arbor, MI (1981).
QUIGLEY, M.A. Freshwater macroinvertebrates. Journal of Water Pollution
Control Federation 53:1015-1027 (1981).
QUINN, F.H. Equilibrium effects of present Great Lakes basin consumptive
use on lake levels. GLERL Open File Report, Great Lakes Environmental
Research Laboratory, Ann Arbor, MI (1981).
QUINN, F.H., and G. den Hartog. Evaporation synthesis. In IFYGL--The
International Field Year for the Great Lakes, E.J. Aubert and T.L.
Richards (eds.). Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory, Ann Arbor,
MI, 221-245 (1981).
RAO, D.B., and B.C. DOUGHTY. Instability of coastal currents in the Great
Lakes. Arch. Met. Geoph. Biokl. 30:145-160 (1981).
Synoptic surveys indicate mesoscale patchiness or meanders in the temperature
structures, calcium carbonate precipitaion patterns or other properties
of the Great Lakes. There are usually recognizable horizontal space
scales associated with the patchiness or meanders. A two-layer model
with linearly sloping bottom was used to examine the possible existence
of baroclinically unstable waves corrresponding to observed space scales.
It was found that, for values of vertical shear, density ratios, upper
and lower layer depths, coastal widths and bottom slope typical for
the Great Lakes, baroclinic instability can occur for wavelengths corresponding
to the observed space scales. The growth rates of the waves were also
found to be large comapred to the time scales of persistence of the
coastal currents, suggesting that baroclinic instability may play a
role in producing the observer patchiness or meanders.
RAO, D.B., and D.J. SCHWAB. A method of objective analysis for currents
in a lake with application to Lake Ontario. Journal of Physical Oceanography
11(5):739-750 (1981). http://www.glerl.noaa.gov/pubs/fulltext/1981/19810002.pdf
The mean circulation in large lakes is nearly nondivergent in character.
This paper takes advantage of this fact to represent the flow field
in terms of the transport streamfunction. The horizontal velocity vector
(v) and the vertical componenet of vorticity are then given by
v = k x H-1-y and z = - ×
H-1-y, where y is the transport streamfunction,
- the horizontal gradient, and H = H(x,y)
the equilibrium depth of the lake. If the vorticity field z(x,y)
is known, y can be dtermined from the above inhomogeneous equation with
H-1y = 0 on the boundary. The current vector is then obtained
from the other equation. In proactice, however, currents are measured
and not vorticity. Therefore, the proposed objective analysis procedure
expands the transport streamfunction in terms of the eigenvectors of
the self-adjoint problem - × H-1-ya
= maya with H-1ya = 0 on the boundary. The
eigenvalues ma and eigenvectors ya are characteristic
of the particular lake and are determined numerically by a Lanczos procedure.
The expansion coefficients are determined by minimizing the squared
error between the calculated v field and available current meter
data. Since the ya functions for the entire domain of the basin
are known, the currents can be reconstructed at any point. This method
has been applied to data gathered in Lake Ontario during the winter
months of 1972-73 as part of the International Field Year for the Great
Richards, T.L., and E.J. AUBERT. The International Field Year for the
Great Lakes--An introduction. In IFYGL--The International Field Year
for the Great Lakes, E.J. Aubert and T.L. Richards (eds.). Great Lakes
Environmental Research Laboratory, Ann Arbor, MI, 1-14 (1981).
ROBERTSON, A., and J.E. Gannon. Annotated checklist of the free-living
copepods of the Great Lakes. Journal of Great Lakes Research 7(4):382-393
An annotated checklist of the free-living copepods of the Laurentian
Great Lakes is developed on the basis of published records. Synonymies
are included for each species, relating, wherever possible, invalid
names in the literature with currently recognized taxonomy. Twelve species
of calanoids, six species of planktonic cyclopoids, nine species of
benthic/littoral cyclopoids, and fourteen species of harpacticoids have
been reported from the Great Lakes. Ten of the calanoids and four of
the cyclopoids are characteristic of limnetic waters. Three calanoids
and two planktonic cyclopoids have been reported infrequently and are
perhaps accidental occurrences. The composition of the planktonic copepod
fauna in most subregions of the Great Lakes is well-known. In contrast,
the sampling of benthic/littoral cyclopoids and harpacticoids has been
so infrequent that their kinds, areas of occurrence, and relative abundances
are still poorly understood.
SAYLOR, J.H. Rotational waves in the Great Lakes and their significance
in large-scale mixing processes. Ocean Management 6:236 (1981).
Recent observational studies of horizontal currents near the centers
of several deep basins within the Great Lakes have revealed persistent
oscillations of a few days in period dominating both the low-frequency
end of kinetic energy spectra and low-pass-filtered current hodographs.
The waves are barotropic and are present during both density stratified
and unstratified seasons. Their signals are also present in coastal
waters surrounding the basins, but the offshore properties of the waves
clearly distinguish them as being separate from coastally-trapped shelf
waves. The oscillations are identified as the classic second-class motions
of a shallow liquid (rotational waves) first described by Lamb in his
treatise on hydrodynamics. They are similar to Rossby waves expect that
the necessary gradient of potential vorticity is provided by the basins
and anticyclonically nearer shore. As the closed circulation cells of
the waves propagate in a cyclonic direction about the basins, evidence
of the passage of regions of divergence and convergence in the flow
field is found in associated thermocline upwellings and downwellings
along the coasts during stratification. These observations reveal for
the first time in the Great Lakes waves of this class controlling the
low-frequency current responses in an interior basin. The orbital velocities
can become quite large when meteorological forcing occurs in near resonance
with the rotational waves and they are important factors intensifying
large-scale mixing processes within the lake basins.
SAYLOR, J.H., J.R. BENNETT, F.M. Boyce, P.C. LIU, C.R. Murthy, R.L. PICKETT,
and T.J. Simmons. Water movements. In IFYGL--The International Field
Year for the Great Lakes, E.J. Aubert and T.L. Richards (eds.). Great
Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory, Ann Arbor, MI, 247-324 (1981).
SAYLOR, J.H., J.C.K. HUANG, and R.O. Reid. Vortex modes in southern Lake
Michigan. Journal of Physical Oceanography 10(11):1814-1823 (1980).
Current velocities and water temperatures were observed in southern
Lake Michigan with an array of AMF vector-averaging current meters during
late spring, summer and fall 1976. Analyses of the recorded current
data have revealed that persistent oscillations of nearly 4 days in
period were at least as energetic as inertial oscillations in the kinetic
energy spectra and current hodographs. The 4-day oscillations were present
at all stations, including a very clear signal at stations near the
center of the lake basin. This lake-wide oscillation was present during
both stratified and unstratified seasons and current vectors rotated
cyclonically near the center of the lake and anticyclonically elsewhere.
The observed rotational oscillations closely fit the characteristics
of barotropic second-class motions of a basin with variable depth first
described by Lamb (1932). While such topographic vortex modes are of
the same class as low-frequency shelf waves, their kinematic properties
and natural period are governed by the lake shape as well as the bathymetry.
Moreover, the gravest mode is unique among these waves in having nonzero
velocity at the lake center. The present observations give clear evidence
for the existence of the gravest mode of such oscillations in southern
SCAVIA, D. Conceptual model of phosphorus cycling. In Nutrient Cycling
in the Great Lakes: A Summarization of Factors Regulating the Cycling
of Phosphorus, D. Scavia and R.A. Moll (eds.). Great Lakes Research
Division, the University of Michigan, Special Report No. 83, Ann Arbor,
MI, 119-140 (1980).
SCAVIA, D., R.P. Canale, W.F. Powers, and J.F. Moody. Variance estimates
for a dynamic eutrophication model of Saginaw Bay, Lake Huron. Water
Resources Research 17(4):1115-1124 (1981).
First-order variance propagation is used to estimate variance of model
output originating from variances of uncertain initial conditions, parameter
values, and external load estimates for a nutrient-phytoplankton-zooplankton
dynamic eutrophication model of one segment of Saginaw Bay, Lake Huron.
Coefficients of variation of model output during summer are not unlike
those estimated from measurements. The major source of variance propagation,
are identified by analysis of the predicted correlation matrix. Methods
for reducing model output variance are suggested.
SCAVIA, D., and R.A. Moll. Nutrient cycling in the Great Lakes: A summarization
of factors regulating the cycling of phosphorus. Special Report No. 83.
Great Lakes Research Division, the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor,
MI, 140 pp. (1980). http://www.glerl.noaa.gov/pubs/fulltext/1980/19800011.pdf
SCAVIA, D., W.F. Powers, R.P. Canale, and J.F. Moody. Comparison of first-order
error analysis and Monte Carlo simulation in time- dependent lake eutrophication
models. Water Resources Research 17(4):1051-1059 (1981).
Estimates of variance for a nonlinear, seasonal food chain, nutrient
cycle eutrophication model of Saginaw Bay, Lake Huron, calculated by
first-order variance propagation and Monte Carlo analyses, do not always
agree. A comparison of estimates of state variables indicates that Monte
Carlo means are most like the measurements, whereas Monte Carlo medians
are most like the deterministic model output. Best agreement between
Monte Carlo and first-order estimates of both state variable values
and their variances occurs when Monte Carlo output distributions are
symmetric. Under these conditions, both estimates are measures of variance
associated with total populations (i.e., all algae). Those distributions,
however, change dramatically in time for most state variables. For asymmetric
distributions, first-order variance estimates measure variability about
the typical component of the total population (i.e., the typical algal
species) and Monte Carlo variance estimates measure variability of the
mean component (which is more reflective of the total). One must be
cognizant of these differences when estimating variance associated with
**SCHWAB, D.J. Determination of wind stress from water level fluctuations.
Ph.D. dissertation, The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, University
An inverse method for determining wind stress from water level fluctuations
is tested in several ideal cases and is applied to observations of Lake
Erie water levels and over-water wind to compute over-water drag coefficients.
The method is based on the linearized, vertically-integrated shallow
water equations with rotation and friction terms. It is shown that the
free surface fluctuation can be expressed as the convolution integral
of time and space dependent wind stress with a response function kernel.
An explicit form for the response function in terms of the normal modes
of the system is given. If wind stress is taken as the unknown and water
level fluctuation as a prescribed quantity, the integral equation relating
them does not have a unique solution. However, it is shown that, with
some reasonable assumptions about the spatial variability of the wind
stress field, a unique solution for wind stress in terms of water level
fluctuations can be obtained. The method is applied to hourly observations
of Lake Erie water levels from 12 stations around the lake for the period
May to October, 1979. The calculated hourly wind stress directions agree
with wind directions observed from buoys on the lake for wind speeds
greater than 7.5 m s-1. The agreement improves as wind speed increases.
Calculated wind stress magnitudes are used with observed wind speeds
to determine over-water drag coefficients as a function of wind speed
and atmospheric stability. The average calculated drag coefficients
for 2.5 m s-1 wind speed classes at wind speeds greater than 7.5 m s-1
increase with wind speed and decrease with atmospheric stability. the
average 4 m drag coefficient for neutral conditions and wind speeds
greater than 7.5 m s-1 is 1.81 x 10-3.
SCHWAB, D.J., R.A. Shuchman, and P.C. LIU. Wind wave directions determined
from synthetic aperture radar imagery and from a tower in Lake Michigan.
Journal of Geophysical Research 86(C3):2059-2064 (1981).
Directional wave spectra calculated from digitized synthetic aperture
radar (SAR) images of waves on Lake Michigan are compared to a wave
directional spectrum determined from measurements taken at a tower and
to a one-dimensional spectrum determined from a Waverider buoy. The
comparison is within one frequency band for peak energy frequency and
within 20o for direction, but the SAR image intensity spectrum does
not have the same shape as a wave height spectrum. Wave refraction directions
observed in the SAR spectra are within 10o of classical wave refraction
SONZOGNI, W.C. The slow painting of a 'big picture'. Great Lakes Basin
Commission Communicator 11(11):3 (1981).
SONZOGNI, W.C., S.C. CHAPRA, D.E. Armstrong, and T.J. Logan. Bioavailability
of phosphorus inputs to lakes: Significance to management. Great Lakes
Basin Commission Great Lakes Environmental Planning Study (GLEPS) Report
#40, Ann Arbor, MI, 30 pp. (1981).
An important consideration in determining the cost-effectiveness of
phosphorus (P) control strategies for lakes is bioavailability - i.e.,
the portion of the total P input capable of stimulating biological growth.
this paper provides a perspective on the availability question by (1)
summarizing and interpreting methods of measuring bioavailable P, (2)
assessing the general bioavailability of different P sources, (3) exploring
how lakes may respond to bioavailable P inputs using a mathematical
model and by (4) considering the effect of bioavailability on P management
strategies. it is concluded that an upper limit to bioavailable P (defined
as the amount of inorganic P a P-deficient algal population can utilize
over a period of 48 hours or longer) corresponds to the dissolved reactive
P (DRP) plus the fraction of the particulate inorganic P obtained by
extraction with 0.1N NaOH. Based on existing information (mostly from
Great Lakes Basin studies), potentially bioavailable inorganic P in
tributaries generally does not exceed 60 percent of the total P and
is often considerably less. On the other hand, the total P in treated
sewage effluent appears largely bioavailable. However, whether the potentially
available particulate inorganic P portion of the bioavailable P pool
actually becomes bioavailable in a receiving waters depends on factors
such as the receiving water DRP concentration and the position (including
residence time) of the particle in the water. A mathematical model,
combining two classical modeling approaches, is used to illustrate the
importance of positional limits to bioavailability. Finally, from a
management perspective, current information suggests that the costs
of controlling P inputs from land runoff is sharply increased per unit
of P reduction if bioavailable P rather than total P is considered.
SONZOGNI, W.C., W.S. Richardson, P. Rogers, and T.J. Monteith. Chloride
budget for the Great Lakes: A current assessment. Great Lakes Basin Commision
Great Lakes Environmental Planning Study (GLEPS) Report #39, Ann Arbor,
MI, 42 pp. (1981).
Trace toxic contaminants will be the major research focus in the years
ahead, since our inland seas appear to be especially sensitive to contaminants.
During the 1970s, however, attention centered on pollution from municipal
sewage treatment plants. By year 2000 controls are predicted to reduce
phosphorus inputs to the Great Lakes from municipal sources by more
than half current levels. Although this reduction will likely result
in an overall improvement in water quality, it may also result in small
reductions in fish yields. During the 1980s and 1990s it will be important
to evaluate the effects of phosphorus pollution control programs have
been cost-effective. Finally, because of water shortages around the
world, water quantity will emerge as a major Great Lakes issue.
SONZOGNI, W.C., A. ROBERTSON, and A.M. Beeton. The importance of ecological
factors in Great Lakes management. Great Lakes Basin Commision Great Lakes
Environmental Planning Study (GLEPS) Report #52, Ann Arbor, MI, 28 pp.
Although attempts to improve the quality of the Great Lakes generally
focus on chemical pollution, other factors are important and should
be considered. Ecologic factors, such as invasion of the lakes by foreign
species, habitat changes, overfishing and stochastic variations in organism
populations, are especially influential. For example, contrary to popular
belief the dieoffs of alewies that have occurred along Great Lakes coasts
appear to be more related to species overabundance than to pollution.
Similarly, the fantastic resurgence of the walleye sport fishery in
Lake Erie is attributed more to regulated harvesting than to the continuing
abatement of Lake Erie pollution. Importantly, our emphasis on ecological
factors is not intended to diminish the seriousness of pollution, but
rather to point out that more cost-effective management, as well as
more realistic expectations by the public of management efforts, should
result from and ecosystem management approach in which ecological factors
are carefully considered. Lack of appreciation of the significance of
ecological factors partly stems form the inappropriate application of
the concept of eutrophication to the Great Lakes. Nutrient pollution
is blamed for many of the changes observed in the lakes, but these changes
are often more related to ecological factors. Attention to ecological
factors will be especially important in the future as closer scrutiny
is given to coasts, benefits, and probabilities for success of environmental
improvements. Further, certain ecological changes which may occur in
the future, such as a possible collapse of the alewife population or
the continued spread of the pink salmon, have major management implications.
In this regard, more quantitative information on management. Finally,
the unprecedented Great Lakes pollution abatement program implemented
over the last ten years provides a unique opportunity to study the response
of the lakes to decreased pollutant inputs. Variations from expected
responses should provide further insight on the relative importance
of ecological factors, and lead to more cost-effective lake management.
SONZOGNI, W.C., and M.S. Simmons. Notes on Great Lakes trace metal and
toxic organic contaminants. GLERL Open File Report, Great Lakes Environmental
Research Laboratory, Ann Arbor, MI (1981).
While a relatively large amount of toxic contaminant data have been
collected on the Great Lakes, few efforts have been made to interpret
this information, especially from a holistic or system-wide perspective.
Consequently, using a compilation of toxics data issued by the International
Joint Commission as a primary source of information, general characteristics
of the toxics data base were sought. Data from Lakes Michigan and Erie
were given the most attention. Overall, reported concentrations of both
trace metals and organic pollutants were highly variable. Typical concentrations
of many contaminants ranged over an order of magnitude. Aside form PCBs
and DDT, very little data exist on organic contaminants such as dieldrin,
endrin, chlordane, toxaphene and phthalates. No clear differences in
contaminant concentrations between lakes were noted, possibly because
of the wide range in reported concentration. Typical concentrations
of contaminants in Great Lakes waters were at or below the part per
billion level. Inorganic contaminants were generally found in water
in greater quantities than organic contaminants were generally found
in water in greater quantities than organic contaminants. In the sediment,
organic contaminant concentrations were typically below the part per
million level, while some metals (e.g., zinc) were found at concentrations
in excess of several hundred parts per million. Highest sediment contaminant
concentrations were found in the deeper, despositional basins of the
lakes. Certain organic contaminants such as PCBs, dieldrin and DDT were
concentrated in fish tissue. Zinc was also reported in fish in high
concentrations. There is some indication that PCB levels in Lake Michigan
fish are decreasing in a fashion similar to the decrease observed for
DDT. Generally, however, temporal trends in the data were not obvious.
For most contaminants the objectives set in the 1978 Great Lakes Water
Quality Agreement are being met. Exceptions include cadmium and copper
concentrations in water, where the upper end of the range of concentrations
reported exceed the objectives. In fish, levels of mercury, PCBs and
DDT exceed their objectives in the upper port of their reported range.
SONZOGNI, W.C., and W.R. Swain. Perspectives on U.S. Great Lakes chemical
toxic substances research. Journal of Great Lakes Research 6(4):265-274
Because of their magnitude, their geographic and demographic characteristics,
and their unique limnological properties, the Great Lakes appear to
be especially susceptible to chemical contamination. The scientific
basis for dealing with this contamination is very limited compared with
the magnitude of the problem. This is particularly evident when the
vast array of toxic xenobiotic substances of anthropogenic origin are
considered. Major knowledge gaps exist on the critical transport pathways,
ultimate fate, and ecological effects of toxic substances (of urgent
importance are health effects on humans residing in the basin), as well
as on the economic and social aspects of toxics management. The economic
climate of the 1980s, however, is likely to severely limit the resources
available for the conduct of research which is so badly needed. Consequently,
it appears that the Great Lakes research community will have imposed
upon it a markedly increased demand for information and a concomitant
reduction in the resources available to accomplish the task. Finally,
despite a pessimistic outlook for research support, there is optimism
that the great Lakes will respond positively, and in a relatively short
time span (years as opposed to centuries), to the abatement of toxic
inputs. Nevertheless, additional information on the processes affecting
the distribution and fate of toxic substances is still critical to the
understanding required to ensure effective remedial actions.
Sullivan, R.A.C., M. Baise, and W.C. SONZOGNI. Environmental quality
maps for the U.S. Great Lakes Basin. Great Lakes Basin Commision Great
Lakes Environmental Planning Study (GLEPS) Report #41, Ann Arbor, MI,
96 pp. (1981).
Sullivan, R.A.C., T.M. Heidtke, J.R. Hall, and W.C. SONZOGNI. Potential
impact of changes in Great Lakes water quality on fisheries. Great Lakes
Basin Commision Great Lakes Environmental Planning Study (GLEPS) Report
#26, Ann Arbor, MI, 52 pp. (1981).
TARAPCHAK, S.J. Measurements of phosphate-phosphorus in lake water. In
Nutrient cycling in the Great Lakes: A summarization of Factors Regulating
the Cycling of Phosphorus, D. Scavia and R.A. Moll (eds.). Great Lakes
Research Division, The University of Michigan, Special Report No. 83,
Ann Arbor, MI, 1-11 (1980).
TARAPCHAK, S.J., D.R. SLAVENS, and L.M. MALONEY. Abiotic versus biotic
uptake of radiophosphorus in lake water. Canadian Journal of Fisheries
and Aquatic Sciences 38(8):889-895 (1981).
Tests were conducted on Selenastrum capricornutum and lake water
to evaluate the common practice of estimating abiotic uptake of radiophosphorus
(33Pi) by poisoning samples with glutaraldehyde (GA) and Formalin (FM)
and to estimate abiotic uptake in Lake Michigan water. Algae treated
with GA and FM release intracellular 31Pi into solution, which elevates
the dissolved 31Pi:33Pi ratio and could seriously underestimate abiotic
uptake. Carbonylcyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CP), an inhibitor of
phosphorylation, was identified as a satisfactory agent for estimating
abiotic uptake because it effectively inhibits biological uptake, it
does not cause the release of detectable amounts of 31Pi from algae
into solution, and it does not appear to block significantly abiotic
uptake by particulate material in lake water. Two types of tests demonstrated
that nonbiological uptake of 33Pi in water from Lake Michigan was negligible:
uptake in samples treated with 10-3 mol/L CP was </=0.01%, and uptake
by particulate material recovered from lake water after treatment with
heat or GA and resuspension in filtered lake water was </=2% of rates
measured in untreated samples. Procedures for estimating abiotic uptake
in 33Pi tracer experiments are proposed.
Thomann, R.V., D. SCAVIA, D.M. Di Toro, and A. ROBERTSON. Ecosystem and
water quality modeling. In IFYGL--The International Field Year for
the Great Lakes, E.J. Aubert and T.L. Richards (eds.). Great Lakes
Environmental Research Laboratory, Ann Arbor, MI, 353-366 (1981).
Tisue, G.T., D.J. Fingleton, J.A. ROBBINS, R. Allison, and S. Barr. Air
quality changes over Lake Michigan: 1973-74 compared with 1978-79. Argonne
National Laboratory Report ANL-80-225, Pt. III, Argonne, IL, 39-45 pp.
VANDERPLOEG, H.A. Effect of the algal length/aperture length ratio on
Coulter analysis of lake seston. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and
Aquatic Sciences 38(8):912-916 (1981).
The dynamics of 65zn specific activity and total zinc in benthic fishes
on the outer continental shelf off central Oregon (USA) were examined.
A differential equation that relates specific activity of 65zn in fish
to that in fish food was used to estimate a's (zinc uptake-rate coefficients)
for 3 different size classes of the flounder Lyopsetta exilis,
a small predator of pelagic Crustacea, and for 1 size class of the flounder
Microstromus pacificus, a large predator of infauna. The a's
obtained for L. exilis were very close to the a obtained in the
laboratory for the flounder Pleuronectes platessa. The a estimated
for m. pacificus was very much smaller than the a's estimated
for the other two species. A model that related a to predicted weight-specific
feeding rates suggested that the smaller a of M. pacificus was
caused by a low absorption efficiency of zinc from its prey. Sensitivity
studies indicated that time histories of specific activity in the fishes
are not sensitive to moderate changes in a. The negative correlation
between specific activity in the diet and in the weight of L. exilis
was the major cause of the negative correlative between specific activity
and weight in this species. In M. pacificus, where composition
of diet does not vary with size, specific activity was independent of
weight. The time history of specific activity in M. pacificus
was very much lower than those in the different size classes of L.
exilis, a result caused mainly by the much lower specific activity
of the prey of M. pacificus. Differences in specific activity
among other benthic fishes were also correlated with differences in
specific activity of their prey. The food-web dynamics responsible for
these patterns are discussed. Variation in total zinc concentrations
among species was small. Within species of flounder, zinc concentration
varied only slightly or not at all with weight.
VANDERPLOEG, H.A. Seasonal particle-size selection by Diaptomus sicilis
in offshore Lake Michigan. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic
Sciences 38(5):504-517 (1981).
Diaptomus sicilis feeding on offshore Lake Michigan seston exhibited
a relatively invariant pattern of particle-size selection in 23 separate
feeding experiments conducted from spring through fall over a 2-yr period.
This pattern persisted for different feeding rates under varying conditions
of particle-size spectrum shape, abundance and food quality of particles,
and temperature. Selection was quantified by calculating W' (filtering
efficiency) as a function of particle size (equivalent spherical diameter).
In all but one of the few experiments yielding a W' curve that varied
appreciably from the other W' curves, serious bias from grazer-produced
particles was evident and/or elongated particles dominated the seston.
The elongated particles could have led to deviations because of differences
in filtering efficiency between round and elongated particles of small
volume and because elongated particles of large volume have to be captured
raptorially. It is argued that the more variable patterns of particle-size
selection observed in many of the other studies of zooplankton feeding
on natural seston result from: (1) improper methods of quantifying selection,
(2) serious bias from grazer-produced particles, and (3) varying particle
shape, which is not usually specified. The mechanisms of particle selection
by Diaptomus and other species that filter like Diaptomus
are reviewed, and it is noted that invariant selection is not inconsistent
with both filtering and raptorial modes of feeding operating simultaneously.
All the evidence points to a strong passive-mechanical filtering mode
of feeding that may be supplemented by a raptorial mode of feeding that
selects large particles of high food quality.
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Last updated: November 25, 2003 cmd