|Publications List Key|
|Capitalized names represent GLERL authors.|
|* = Not available from GLERL.|
|** = Available in GLERL Library only.|
AUBERT, E.J., and T.L. Richards. IFYGL--The International Field Year for the Great Lakes. Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory, Ann Arbor, MI, 410 pp. (1981).
AUBERT, E.J., and T.L. Richards. Summary of accomplishments. In IFYGL--The International Field Year for the Great Lakes, E.J. Aubert and T.L. Richards (eds.). Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory, Ann Arbor, MI, 367-384 (1981). http://www.glerl.noaa.gov/pubs/fulltext/1981/19810010.pdf
BOLSENGA, S.J. Radiation transmittance through lake ice in the 400-700 nm range. Journal of Glaciology 27(95):57-66 (1981).
Significant new information on radiation transmittance through ice in the photosynthetically active range (400-700 nm) has been collected at an inland lake near Ann Arbor, Michigan, U.S.A., and at one site on the Great Lakes (lat. 46o 46' N., long. 84o 57' W.). Radiation transmittance through clear, refrozen slush, and brash ice varied according to snow cover, ice type, atmospheric conditions, and solar altitude. Snow cover caused the greatest diminution of radiation. During periods of snow melt, radiation transmittance through snow-covered ice surfaces increased slightly. Moderate diurnal variations of radiation transmittance (about 5%) are attributed to solar altitude changes and associated changes in the direct-diffuse balance of solar radiation combined with the type of ice surface studied. Variations in radiation transmittance of nearly 20% over short periods of time are attributed to abrupt changes from a clear to a cloudy atmosphere. A two-layer reflectance-transmittance model illustrates the interaction of layers in an ice cover such as snow or frost overlying clear ice. Upper layers of high reflectance have considerable control on the overall transmittance and reflectance of an ice cover.
BOLSENGA, S.J. Spectral reflectances of freshwater ice and snow from 340 through 1100 nm. Ph.D. dissertation. The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, (1981).
CHAMBERS, R.L., and B.J. EADIE. Nepheloid and suspended particulate matter in southeastern Lake Michigan. Sedimentology 28:439-447 (1981).
A persistent benthic nepheloid layer with high total suspended matter (TSM) and high total particulate surface area was observed in south-eastern Lake Michigan. The layer thickens from a few meters near the shelf-slope boundary to greater than 10 m at the base of the slope. When compared to the hypolimnion, TSM increases by a factor of 2-20 at 1 m above the bottom, the greatest increase detected at the slope-basin boundary. Sediment trap profiles within the nepheloid layer show that the particulate flux increases exponentially from about 10 m above the bottom to 1 m above the bottom, suggesting that a large fraction of the collected material came from resuspension. A nepheloid layer is created during the formation of the thermal bar and maintained during the stratified period, apparently through the action of weak but persistent currents. This layer is supplemented by lakeward transport of fine particles resuspended near the shelf-slope boundary due to impingement of the thermocline on the bottom, or during higher energy events.
CHAPRA, S.C. Application of phosphorus loading models to river-run lakes and other incompletely mixed systems. In Restoration of Lakes and Inland Waters, Report No. EPA 440/5-81-010, Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, 329-334 (1980).
Theoretical calculations are used to demonstrate how river-run reservoirs tend to retain a larger fraction of their phosphorus loading than completely mixed lakes due to the effect of incomplete mixing on the sedimentation process. Empirical models are used to demonstrate the correlation between flushing characteristics and sedimentation. Enhanced settling is also ascribed to the higher proportion of solid-associated phosphorus in the loadings of incompletely mixed systems. The importance of solids to lake phosphorus budgets is demonstrated with a nutrient/phytoplankton model for a river-run lake.
CHAPRA, S.C., and H.F.H. Dobson. Quantification of the lake trophic typologies of Naumann (surface quality) and Thienemann (oxygen) with special reference to the Great Lakes. Journal of Great Lakes Research 7(2):182-193 (1981). http://www.glerl.noaa.gov/pubs/fulltext/1981/19810003.pdf
Separate trophic scales and indices are developed for two of the most significant symptoms of eutrophication: surface water quality and hypolimnetic dissolved oxygen depletion. The scales are make comparable by expressing them in dimensionless form with a lower bound of zero and a mesotrophic range from 5 to 10. In this way, the two symptoms can be compared and their relative importance judged. This is done for the Great Lakes with the result that for both scales Lakes Superior, Huron, and Michigan are classified as mesotrophic in terms of surface water quality, they range from eutrophic (central Lake Erie) to oligotrophic (Lake Ontario) on the oxygen scale. This is because, although these lakes are similar in surface water quality, their hypolimnion thicknesses range from approximately 4 m for central Lake Erie to 70 m for Lake Ontario. Because of its shallowness, western Lake Erie does not have a persistent oxygen problem. In terms of surface quality it is classified as eutrophic. We have attempted to relate the two scales by correlating surface primary production and areal depletion rate. The results indicate that for lakes of similar primary production, areal oxygen depletion is directly proportional to hypolimnion thickness.
*CROLEY, T.E.II. Hydrologic and hydraulic calculation in BASIC for small computers. Iowa Institute of Hydraulic Research, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA, 263 pp. (1980).
**CROLEY, T.E.II. Synthetic-hydrograph computations on small programmable calculators. Iowa Institute of Hydraulic Research, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA, 837 pp. (1980).
CROLEY, T.E., II, A.R. Giaquinta, and R.A. Woodhouse. River thermal standard costs in the upper midwest. Journal of the Energy Division, ASCE 107(EY1):65-77 (1981).
CROLEY, T.E., II, and B. Hunt. Multiple-valued and non-convergent solutions in kinematic cascade models. Journal of Hydrology 49:121-138 (1981).
The Lax--Wendroff finite-difference solution of the equations of motion with the kinematic flow approximation is now widely used in hydrology in cascade models of overland flow. The physical relevance of kinematic shocks and the stability and convergence of the finite-difference solution are problems that are often undetected in contemporary applications due to the complexity of model inputs. Past criteria, developed for discerning either the presence of a shock or the adequacy of finite-difference solutions, are inadequate for complex cascade models. A general method is devised for locating the point along a cascade segment where the solution first becomes multiple-valued, for the lateral inflow situation. An example comparison with an exact solution reveals that stable, finite-difference solutions apparently converge to single-valued hydrographs and water surface profiles with spurious peaks that can go undetected in complex models. Finally, shock propagation and the potential for error growth in cascade models are discussed.
DERECKI, J.A., and R.N. KELLEY. Improved St. Clair River dynamic flow models and comparison analysis. NOAA Technical Memorandum ERL GLERL-34, Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory, Ann Arbor, MI (PB82-119272) 36 pp. (1981). http://www.glerl.noaa.gov/ftp/publications/tech_reports/glerl-034/
The St. Clair River dynamic flow models, modified to provide better channel definition, to include additional discharge measurements for model calibration, and to incorporate wind stress effects on river flows, are described and compared for daily flow differences resulting from channel definition improvements, wind effect, time scale effects, and a combination of these factors. All the St. Clair River models are derived for the upper river channel, spanning approximately one-third of the river. Model 1, with the steepest river slope, is for the headwaters (upper) reach; Model 2 overlaps most of the same reach, but starts farther down the river; finally, Model 3, with reduced slope, covers the lower reach. Model improvements due to additional measurements and better channel definition produced somewhat higher river flows, averaging 3 percent and 4 percent for the upper and lower models, respectively. The effects of wind stress and the selection of daily or hourly computational time scales are generally insignificant, with highest effects for the lower model, where wind produced a small increase (1 percent) in the number of days with significant flow differences. This difference is defined as a flow difference in excess of 2 percent of the total flow, which represents practical accuracy for flow measurements. The largest flow differences are obtained from comparisons of different models, with only a small influence exerted by various model configurations (wind, time number of days with significant flow differences for all comparisons between various models was 45 percent, varying between 54 percent, 48 percent, and 35 percent for Models 1-2, 1-3, and 2-3, respectively. These large percentages of days with significant flow differences are reduced drastically for higher percent flow differences (10-percent average at the 5-percent level) and are caused to a large extent by ice effects during winter. Generally, the accuracy of various models is compatible within, 5 percent of flow for the open-water season, but may exceed 15 percent of flow for the ice-cover season because of ice effects. Model 1, with the upper gage nearly on the lake and the steepest river slope, is less susceptible to ice effects and is considered more accurate for the ice-cover season than the other two models, which are progressively more susceptible to ice effects.
Donovan, M., C.A. Job, and W.C. SONZOGNI. The Milwaukee pollution case--Implications for water resources planning. Water Resources Bulletin 17(1):23-28 (1981).
The Illinois v. Milwaukee Federal District Court decision is the most far reaching application yet of the federal common law of nuisance to interstate water pollution conflicts. Although a Federal Appellate Court recently rescinded part of the district court decision, Milwaukee must still upgrade its metropolitan sewage system to a level beyond that required by federal and state regulations. The improvements must be completed with or without federal aid. The case points out the apparent inability of the Clean Water Act, the most comprehensive federal legislation affecting the nation's water quality, to deal with certain interstate water quality conflicts. The Milwaukee decision could set a precedent for similar settlements elsewhere which may in turn affect the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's water quality clean up program. A more integrated, ecosystem conscious approach to management of shared water resources (e.g., the Great Lakes) would help reduce the need for court decisions like Illinois v. Milwaukee.
EADIE, B.J. An equilibrium model for the partitioning of synthetic organic compounds: Formulation and calibration. NOAA Technical Memorandum ERL GLERL-35, Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory, Ann Arbor, MI (PB82-116682) 39 pp. (1981). http://www.glerl.noaa.gov/ftp/publications/tech_reports/glerl-035/
An equilibrium toxic organic distribution model has been designed. This simple model, needing only information on the contaminants, water solubility, and vapor pressure, yields useful information on the distribution of environmentally persistent organic contaminants. The model was calibrated for total DDT in three ecosystems: a representative coastal regime, Lake Michigan, and a global system. There are some discrepancies between model output and available data; while the model calibrated well for the coastal regime and the Lake Michigan ecosystem, it failed for the global ecosystem. This is presumably because of the uneven application of DDT and the large biomass of terrestrial plants, which are relatively uncontaminated. Owing to its low vapor pressure, DDT has not and will not come to a global equilibrium. The Lake Michigan model was also run for four other organic contaminants, which span several orders of magnitude in solubility and vapor pressure. These will be discussed, as will sensitivity of the model to input parameters.
Fraser, A.S., and A. ROBERTSON. Materials balance. In IFYGL--The International Field Year for the Great Lakes, E.J. Aubert and T.L. Richards (eds.). Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory, Ann Arbor, MI, 341-352 (1981). http://www.glerl.noaa.gov/pubs/fulltext/1981/19810011.pdf
GARDNER, W.S., and B.J. EADIE. Chemical factors controlling phosphorus cycling in lakes. In Nutrient Cycling in the Great Lakes: A Summarization of Factors Regulating the Cycling of Phosphorus, Special Report No. 83, D. Scavia and R.A. Moll (eds.). Great Lakes Research Division, The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, 13-34 (1980).
GARDNER, W.S., B.J. EADIE, and W.H. Miller. Microtechnique to remove particles from high performance liquid chromatographic samples. Journal of Liquid Chromatography 3(10):1585-1592 (1980).
A high speed (13,000 x G) microhematocrit centrifuge rapidly (1 min) removes particles from small (10-60 mL) volumes of sample solution prior to high performance liquid chromatographic analysis. The described technique, using glass capillary tubes, effectively cleans up aqueous biochemical solutions and/or concentrates of environmental samples. Advantages of the method are speed, small sample size, and moderate equipment costs.
GARDNER, W.S., W.H. Miller, and M.J. Imlay. Free amino acids in mantle tissues of the bivalve Amblema plecata: Possible relation to environmental stress. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 26:157-162 (1981).
One problem in assessing pollutant effects on freshwater ecosystems is recognizing subtle signs of stress in perturbed systems. If contaminants or abnormal conditions affect homeostatic mechanisms that control concentrations of biochemicals in organisms, measurements of affected metobolites in normal and stressed organisms may provide a means for evaluating degraded aquatic habitats. Changes in amino acid rations (e.g. glycine: taurine) and amounts of marine bivalves have been observed in response to a variety of pollutants (JEFFRIES 1972; BAYNE et al. 1976; ROESIJADI & ANDERSON 1979; ROESIJADI 1979). The changes of free amino acid patterns in tissues of freshwater bivalves can reflect adverse conditions in stream habitats. Objectives of this investigation were to determine the composition and concentrations of free amino acids in mantle tissues of Amblema plicata and to examine this hypothesis for A. plicata in selected polluted and relatively unpolluted Missouri streams. This species was chosen because it is robust, long-lived (up to 30 years), and wide spread in clean and polluted streams of the United States (STANSBERRY 1971; BURCH 1975; IMLAY 1980). Mussels are attractive bioindicator organisms for freshwater ecosystems because they normally do not migrate extensively within or from their native streams (ISELY 1914; IMLAY 1980), and as filter feeders they are exposed to particular components that can sorb toxic materials, as well as to dissolved substances in water (CHAISEMARTIN 1977).
GARDNER, W.S., and W.H. Miller. Intracellular composition and net release rates of free amino acids in Daphnia magna. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 38(2):157-162 (1981).
Excretion of free amino acids and ammonia by Daphnia magna was measured by examining in vitro changes in concentration of the two forms of nitrogen over 4-6 h. Mean weight-specific amino acid release rate (+/- SE) for 32 healthy daphnids was 0. 13 +/- 0.03 nmol (mg dry wt)-1 - h-1 as compared with a mean ammonia excretion rate of 21 +/- 2 nmol (mg dry wt)-l x h-1. Net removal from solution was observed when low levels of amino acids (2 nmol/8 mL) were added to the water before incubation, indicating that measured net release rates could be reduced by amino acid uptake. Toxic levels (0.5 mg x L-1) of lead, arsenic, Kepone, toxaphene, malathion, or pentachlorophenol, added to stress the animals, did not significantly affect release rates of amino acids or ammonia, but the addition of copper (as CuSO4) increased amino acid release by daphnids and hindered microbial removal of amino acids from incubation waters. Amino acids released from copper-exposed animals were similar in composition to those in intracellular amino acid pools of D. magna, suggesting that diffusion across cell membranes may have been the mechanism for amino acid release.
GARDNER, W.S., and W.H. Miller. Reverse-phase liquid chromatographic analysis of amino acids after reaction with o-phthalaldehyde. Analytical Biochemistry 101:61-65 (1981).
A reverse-phase separation technique was used to determine the binding of 14C-radiolabeled organic pollutants [benzo[a]pyrene, anthracene, biphenyl, p,p'-DDT, 2,4,5,2',4',5'-hexachlorobiphenyl, 2,5,2',5'-tetrachlorobiphenyl, and bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate] to humic materials in aqueous solution. The humic-bound pollutant was separated from the "freely dissolved" pollutant by suing a Sep-Pak C-18 cartridge; humic-bound pollutant passed through, while the unbound pollutants were retained by the column. The partition coefficient (grams of pollutant bound/gram of organic carbon)/(grams of pollutant freely dissolved/milliliter) did not depend on pollutant concentration but was inversely proportional to the concentration of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in solution. At low DOC (1-2 mg of Aldrich humic acids L-1), the partition coefficient was approximately equal to the octanol-water partition coefficient and inversely proportional to water solubility. The partition coefficient for natural waters was solubility. The partition coefficient for natural waters was approximately 1 order of magnitude lower than that determined for the Aldrich humics at similar DOC concentrations. The reverse-phase separation was simple and rapid and gave results similar to dialysis techniques.
GARDNER, W.S., T.F. NALEPA, M.A. QUIGLEY, and J.M. MALCZYK. Release of phosphorus by certain benthic invertebrates. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 38(8):978-981 (1981).
Phosphate release rates by Stylodrilus heringianus, tubificids, and Chironomus spp. were quantified in laboratory experiments by incubating the animals in wet sand under two temperature regimes (5 and 20oC) and under two nutritional states (full and empty guts). Inorganic phosphorus release rates (+/-se) for animals incubated 24 h ranged from 0.12 +/- 0.02 (n = 5) nmol phosphorus (P) x (mg ash-free dry weight)-1 x h-1 for S. heringianus beginning with cleared guts at 5oC to 0.81 +/- 0.09 (n =5) nmol P x (mg ash-free dry weight)-1 x h-1 for chironomids beginning with full guts at 20oC. Calculations based on total invertebrate biomass and mean basal release rate suggested that benthic invertebrate excretion could account for most P released from aerobic Lake Michigan sediments.
GARDNER, W.S., and D. SCAVIA. Kinetic examination of nitrogen release by zooplankters. Limnology and Oceanography 26:801-810 (1981). http://www.glerl.noaa.gov/pubs/fulltext/1981/19810008.pdf
Kinetics of nitrogen release by Daphnia magna (0.2-0.4 mg dry wt) and Daphnia pulex (ca. 0.03 mg dry wt) were followed by measuring ammonium (plus primary amines) in water flowing past individual animals. Culture media water was pumped slowly (6 ml x h-1) through an incubation chamber (volume 0.05 ml) containing a daphnid and then either mixed with o-phthalaldehyde reagent for continuous analysis of nitrogen compounds or passed into a sample loop of an ammonium analyzer for measurements of ammonium release at discrete intervals. Within the resolution of the technique (3 min), nutrient regeneration appeared continuous rather than pulsed. Highest rates of ammonium release, 44 nmol x (mg dry wt)-1 x h-1 (SE=5, N=8), were typically observed immediately after the animals were removed from food. Regeneration rates for D. Magna gradually decreased during the first hour to a mean steady state rate of 11 nmol x (mg dry wt)-1 x h-1 (SE=2, N=8).
GASKILL, D.W. Homogeneity analysis of seasonal mean temperature series at 25 stations around the Great Lakes. NOAA Data Report ERL GLERL-18, Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory, Ann Arbor, MI (PB81-210437) 11 pp. (1981).
The homogeneity of seasonal mean temperature series oat 25 stations around the Great Lakes is assessed. Historical documentation of inhomogeneities and graphical analysis and statistical tests for homogeneity are made for each station series in a data set available at the World Data Center-A for Glaciology. When statistical tests are significant in at least one season, the magnitude of the inhomogeneity is estimated for all four seasons.
Giaquinta, A.R., and T.E. CROLEY. Impact of thermal standards on power plant water consumption. Water Resources Bulletin 17:423-430 (1981).
Power plant water consumption (evaporative water loss) for various river temperature standards is presented for existing and proposed power plants located along the Missouri and Upper Mississippi Rivers in the MAPP geographical area. Thermodynamic and economic models are combined to evaluate the cooling related water consumption at various river thermal standards. The existing thermal standards and a number of other hypothetical thermal regulations including the extreme cases of no thermal standards and no allowable heated discharges are examined to show the dependence on thermal standards of power production related water consumption. A critical appraisal of the cost of thermal standards in terms of water consumption is thereby possible so that subjective assessments of the standards can proceed with full knowledge of the tradeoffs involved between the "water costs" of power production and environmental enhancement.
GREAT LAKES ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH LABORATORY. Annual Report for the Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory, FY 1980. Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory, Ann Arbor, MI, 31 pp. (1980).
GREAT LAKES ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH LABORATORY. Detailed technical plan for the Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory. Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory, Ann Arbor, MI, 205 pp. (1981).
GREAT LAKES ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH LABORATORY. Technical plan for the Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory. Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory, Ann Arbor, MI, 67 pp. (1981).
*GREAT LAKES ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH LABORATORY, and The University of Michigan. First annual progress report to the Office of Marine Pollution Assessment, NOAA. In The Cycling of Toxic Organic Substances in the Great Lakes Ecosystem, Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory, Ann Arbor, MI, 65 pp. (1980).
*GREAT LAKES ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH LABORATORY, and The University of Michigan. Second semiannual progress report to the Office of Marine Pollution Assessment, NOAA. In The Cycling of Toxic Organic Substances in the Great Lakes Ecosystem, Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory, Ann Arbor, MI, 19 pp. (1981).
GREENE, G.M. Simulation of ice-cover growth and decay in one dimension on the upper St. Lawrence River. NOAA Technical Memorandum ERL GLERL-36, (PB82-114208) 82 pp. (1981). http://www.glerl.noaa.gov/ftp/publications/tech_reports/glerl-036/
A series of models are presented for simulating the growth and decay of channel ice in one dimension on the upper St. Lawrence River. By assuming simplified boundary conditions and a linear temperature gradient in the ice layer, I have been able to treat the theory of ice growth analytically, producing the first group of models. A less abstract approach was taken in the construction of a deterministic surface energy balance model. This model simulates the relevant energy fluxes at the upper and lower boundaries of the snow/ice cover on the river. In addition, the model simulates the diffusion of heat through the ice layer, permitting the absorption of shortwave radiation within the ice and the use of a model time step of less than 24 h. A general description of ice growth and decay is given for the reach of the river between the Moses-Saunders Power Dam at Cornwall, Ont., and Lake Ontario. Simulation sites in both slow moving and faster reaches of the river are discussed. Over the winter of 1975-76, the analytic model produced results well correlated with observed ice thickness during growth. During decay, the results simulated in a slow moving reach are much closer to observed thickness than are those simulated in a faster reach. The energy balance model simulates a maximum ice thickness that is 75 percent of the observed thickness. In addition, the simulated maximum thickness occurs 2 weeks later than the observed maximum. These shortcomings appear to be caused by model node geometry and by the absence of turbulent heat transfer between the ice and the river. The model does simulate ice-cover breakup within the period when breakup was observed to occur. Sensitivity analysis of the model suggests that the simulated results are most sensitive to variations in air temperature., water temperature, and net radiation. Thermodynamic processes appear to be sufficient to produce breakup without the additional simulation of mechanical forces.
**GREENE, G.M. Simulation of ice-cover growth and thermal decay on the upper St. Lawrence River. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Ann Arbor, MI, (1981).
Four computer models are described that simulate the growth and thermal decay of the ice cover that forms on the upper St. Lawrence river. The first two models are based on analytic solutions to equations describing the transfer of heat within an ice cover with uniform properties. The first model was applied during the growth period and did not include turbulent heat transfer from the river water at the lower boundary. Model results can be compared to observed ice cover thicknesses at two sites over the 1975-76 winter. The maximum was 65 cm. In both a slow-moving reach (0.4 ms-1) and a faster reach (1.5 ms-1), simulated ice cover thicknesses fell within 3 cm of the observed thicknesses. The analytic melt model does incorporate turbulent heat transfer beneath the ice cover. In the slow moving reach, the model consistently over-predicted the rate of melting, leading to breakup two days prior to the observed date. The over-prediction was even more severe in the fast-moving reach. A third model is described which combines a surface energy balance solution for a surface temperature with a finite-difference implicit heat diffusion scheme that permits non-linear temperature gradients in the ice. In this model, shortwave radiation can be absorbed within the ice cover. When applied to the 1975-76 winter, the model produced a simulated date of maximum ice cover thickness that was 2 weeks later than was observed. The simulated maximum thickness was only 75 percent of that observed. Simulated breakup occurs 2 days later than the observed date. The fourth model incorporates elements from the first three models. A surface temperature is derived from computations of the surface energy fluxes. This temperature then becomes an upper boundary condition for an analytic model that includes turbulent heat transfer beneath the ice cover. This model best approximates the observed rates of growth and decay if one assumes a frazil ice layer beneath the ice cover so that the water temperature close to the lower boundary can be set close to 0oC. Sensitivity testing of this model shows that it is relatively insensitive to the forcing meteorological variables but is sensitive to changes in the ice thermal properties as well as the water temperature and velocity.
Heidtke, T.M., W.C. SONZOGNI, and L. Botts. Great Lakes environmental planning study: Summary report. Great Lakes Basin Commission Great Lakes Environmental Planning Study (GLEPS) Report, 21 pp. (1981).
LANDRUM, P.F., and D.G. Crosby. Comparison of the disposition of several nitrogen-containing compounds in the sea urchin and other marine invertebrates. Xenobiotica 11(5):351-361 (1981).
The disposition of an aromatic amine and three aromatic nitro compounds was investigated in the sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus. The sea urchin rapidly eliminated injected compounds. The elimination rate constants decreased in the order p-toluidine>p-nitroanisole=p-nitrophenol>p-nitrotoluene. The fraction of total injected compound eliminated in 8h was lowerst for p-nitrophenol<p-toluidine<p-nitrotoluene<p-nitroanisole. Biotransformation for the sea urchin was primarily reduction of the nitro group followed by acetylation of the amine. Other animals, starfish, sea cucumber, gum boot chiton, and mussels injected with p-nitroanisole exhibited a trend toward ocidative biotransformation. Elimination of parent compound was the major pathway for reducing body burden of xenobiotices for the invertebrates studies. p-toluidine oxidizes during analysis and was thus not suitable for studying biotransformation.
LANDRUM, P.F., and D.G. Crosby. The disposition of p-Nitroanisole by the sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus - II. Biotransformation and Bioconcentration. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 5:240-254 (1981).
Biotransformation and bioconcentration of p-nitroanisole (PNA) in sea urchins, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, was studied using short-term exposures in static and dynamic, flowing water, studies and under steady-state conditions. The metabolic pathway was characterized by reduction of the nitro group with subsequent acetylation of the formed p-anisidine. The extent of metabolism was less than 2.5% of the excreted material, total excretion 73 ±11%. The metabolism varied with season, corresponding to the reproductive cycle, and with length of time held in the laboratoary. The PNA had a relative weight of distribution (analagous to volume of distrubiton) of 1.73 ± 0.95 and the gonads acted as the storage site. The bioconcentration factor for PNA was 6.1 ± 4.7 and had a range of 1.9-25.9. The bioconcentration factor also varied with the reproductive cycle of the sea urchin. The sea urchin demonstrated a decreased excretion of PNA with an increase in metabolism which implies that long-term exposure to PNA could be potentially harmful. These studies along with the kinetics demonstrated the usefulness of our testing protocol to distinguish the differences in the disposition of PNA in the sea urchin under different physiological states.
LANDRUM, P.F., and D.G. Crosby. The disposition of p-Nitroanisole by the sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus - I. Kinetics. Ecotoxicology and Enviromental Safety 5:225-239 (1981).
Investigation of the disposition kinetics of p-nitroanisole (PNA) by the sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, demonstrated the usefulness of our proposed protocol for assessing the disposition of xenobiotics in aquatic species. The protocol consists of four steps: toxicity rangefinding, acute static, dynamic (Flowing water) and steady-state investigations of xenobiotic metabolism, and kinetics. Elimination kinetics from acute static investigations fit the form dQw/dt = K1Qa, where Qw is the quantity of compound in the water, Qa the quantity in the animal, K1 the elimination rate constant, and K2 the uptake rate constant. Estimates of the elimination and uptake rate constants were 0.57 +/- 0.23 and 0.09 +/- 0.05 hr-1 (n = 32), respectively, for studies covering 1.5 years. A simpler method for estimating these rate constants is described. The elimination half-life was dependent on time held after collection and season, corresponding to the reproductive cycle. Steady-state studies indicated that the elimination of PNA is an active process. The turnover rate constant (1.3 +/- 0.6 hr-1) was not different from the acute elimination rate constant. Overall the rapid elimination of PNA and the rapid approach to steady state (approximately 8 hr) will be the prime factors in the fate of PNA in sea urchins. For short-term exposure, upon termination the sea urchin will rapidly and actively eliminate the compound. For chronic, long-term exposures, the sea urchin will rapidly achieve steady state and the fate will be dependent upon biotransformation.
LANDRUM, P.F., and J.P. Giesy. Chapter 22. Anomalous breakthrough of benzo(a)pyrene during concentration with Amberlite XAD-4 resin from aqueous solutions. In Advances in the Identification and Analysis of Organic Pollutants in Water, Volume I, L.H. Keith (ed.). Ann Arbor Science, Ann Arbor, MI, 345-355 (1981).
LESHKEVICH, G.A. Categorization of northern Green Bay ice cover using LANDSAT-1 digital data--A case study. NOAA Technical Memorandum ERL GLERL-33, Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory, Ann Arbor, MI (PB81-200438) 19 pp. (1981). http://www.glerl.noaa.gov/ftp/publications/tech_reports/glerl-033/
Northern Green Bay ice cover on February 13, 1975, was analyzed using LANDSAT 1 digital data on the computer facilities at the Environmental Research Institute of Michigan. Training sets, consisting of selected areas in the LANDSAT scene that represent various ice types, were entered based upon the tone, texture, and location of the ice within the bay. The classification algorithm used in the analysis consisted of a modified maximum likelihood procedure using the multivariate Gaussian probability density function. It was found that seven ice types could be differentiated in the ice cover, that new (thin) ice could be distinguished from water, and that ice could be distinguished from relatively thin cloud cover. Training set statistics and area tabulations were generated and a color coded categorized image was produced. Recommendations are made for future studies.
LESHKEVICH, G.A. Lake Superior ice cycle--1979 (16-mm film, 12 min.). Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory, Ann Arbor, MI, (1981).
LIU, P.C., and D.B. Ross. Airborne measurements of wave growth for stable and unstable atmospheres in Lake Michigan. Journal of Physical Oceanography 10(11):1842-1853 (1980). http://www.glerl.noaa.gov/pubs/fulltext/1980/19800002.pdf
This paper presents the results of a joint program combining airborne laser profilometer and Waverider buoy measurements of synoptic wave conditions in Lake Michigan during the passage of an intense cold front. Measurements were made both before and after passage of the front under different atmospheric stabilities. The results demonstrate the distinctive role stability plays in wave growth processes. Specifically, it is evident that the wind speed and fetch distance required to generate the same wave conditions are less for an unstable atmosphere than for a stable atmosphere. Therefore, an unstable atmosphere is usually accompanied by higher waves for the same 10 m winds. Fetch-limited wave growth is seen to follow stable or unstable quasi-equilibrium relations between corresponding wave-energy and peak-energy frequency parameters. Synoptic wave height maps for Lake Michigan have been prepared from the measured data.
McCORMICK, M.J., and D. SCAVIA. Calculation of vertical profiles of lake-averaged temperature and diffusivity in Lakes Ontario and Washington. Water Resources Research 17(2):305-310 (1981).
By using statistical analysis of temperature observations and model calculations, the common parameterization of vertical eddy diffusivity (k) in terms of the gradient Richardson number (Ri) is simplified. The simpler formulation accurately reproduces seasonal variations in temperature profiles from Lakes Ontario and Washington. Energy arguments support use of the simplified parameterization and suggest use of a modified Ri in calculating k. The new expression for k resulted in more realistic estimates of thermocline k. The modeling of free convective mixing in Lake Ontario by heat conservation resulted in excessive temperatures in the hypolimnion during fall overturn.
Monteith, T.J., and W.C. SONZOGNI. Variations in U.S. Great Lakes tributary flows and loadings. Great Lakes Basin Commission Great Lakes Environmental Planning Study (GLEPS) Report #47 (1981).
Monteith, T.J., R.A.C. Sullivan, T.M. Heidtke, and W.C. SONZOGNI. Watershed handbook: A management technique for choosing among point and nonpoint control strategies. Report prepared for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency by the Great Lakes Basin Commission and the Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory under Interagency Agreement No. AD-85-F-0-061-0, Ann Arbor, MI, 107 pp. (1981).
NALEPA, T.F., and M.A. QUIGLEY. The macro- and meiobenthos of southeastern Lake Michigan near the mouth of the Grand River, 1978-79. NOAA Data Report ERL GLERL-19, Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory, Ann Arbor, MI (PB82-111642) 7 pp. (1981).
This report is the second of a two-part series that presents the basic results of a benthos sampling program in southeastern Lake Michigan. Sediment cores were collected at monthly intervals from May to November 1978 and 1970 by divers using SCUBA. Sampling was conducted at two stations located at the 11-12 m depth interval. Organisms retained on screens with aperture openings of 595 mm, 250 mm, 106 mm, and 45 mm were counted and identified to the lowest practical taxonomic level. Results are presented in two tables that give the following data: (1) abundance of each taxa in each replicate core (2) dry weight biomass (mg) of the major benthic groups in each replicate core. Supplementary tables of 1976-77 sample data are also provided. These tables give the density and dry weight of epibenthic crustaceans collected in both the sediments and in the overlying waters (water in core tube). The first data report (Nalepa and Quigley 1980) gave the density and dry weight of only those collected in the sediments.
NALEPA, T.F., and A. ROBERTSON. Screen mesh size affects estimates of macro- and meiobenthos abundance and biomass in the Great Lakes. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 38(9):1027-1034 (1981).
The efficiencies of screens with mesh openings of 595 and 106 mm in retaining, respectively, the macro- and meio-benthos were measured for samples taken in southeastern Lake Michigan. The use of these screens provides adequate estimates of dry weight biomass for both the macro- and meio-benthos, but serious underestimates of the numbers of many taxa, most notably naidids, enchytraeids, chironomids, nematodes, and rotifers, can result. For chironomids, retention on the 595-mm screen varied by species, with overall retention being closely related to both body length and head capsule width. Retention for certain macro-benthic taxa was significantly related to sampling date and water depth, indicating that future studies concerned with these variables should use mesh sizes small enough to retain all (or almost all) of the individuals of the taxa of interest.
NALEPA, T.F., and A. ROBERTSON. Vertical distribution of the zoobenthos in southeastern Lake Michigan with evidence of seasonal ariation. Freshwater Biology 11:87-96 (1981).
The vertical distribution of the zoobenthos in southeastern Lake Michigan was investigated monthly from May to November 1976. The organisms could be divided into two categories: one in which the majority of the population occurred in the upper 1 cm of substrate (Pontoporeia, naidids, chironomids, cyclopoids, harpacticoids, cladocerans, turbellarians, ostracods, rotifers, sphaeriids and gastropods) and one in which the majority of the population occurred deeper (immature tubificids without hair setae, Stylodrilus heringianus, echytraeids, nematodes, and tarigrades). The vertical distribution of these infaunal forms showed a marked seasonal variation. They were found in the superficial sediments in the spring, but deeper in the sediments in the autumn. This trend coincided with the seasonal occurrence of a detrital layer that overlay the sandy substrate in the spring but was absent in the autumn.
NALEPA, T.F., D.S. White, C.M. Pringle, and M.A. QUIGLEY. The biological component of phosphorus exchange and cycling in lake sediments. In Nutrient Cycling in the Great Lakes: A Summarization of Factors Regulating the Cycling of Phosphorus, D. Scavia and R.A. Moll (eds.). Special Report No. 83, Great Lakes Research Division, The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, 93-109 (1980).
PINSAK, A.P., R.C. Hore, and D.J. Vallery. Consumptive water use. In Great Lakes Diversions and Consumptive Uses: Report to the International Joint Commission by the International Great Lakes Diversions and Consumptive Uses Study Board, U.S. Department of the Army, Corps of Engineers, Sec 6, Detroit, MI, 1-56 (1981).
PINSAK, A.P., and G.K. Rodgers. Energy balance. In IFYGL--The International Field Year for the Great Lakes, E.J. Aubert and T.L. Richards (eds.). Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory, Ann Arbor, MI, 169-197 (1981).
PRESTON, C.N. Great Lakes precipitation, 1854-74. GLERL Open File Report, Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory, Ann Arbor, MI (1981).
QUIGLEY, M.A. Freshwater macroinvertebrates. Journal of Water Pollution Control Federation 53:1015-1027 (1981).
QUINN, F.H. Equilibrium effects of present Great Lakes basin consumptive use on lake levels. GLERL Open File Report, Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory, Ann Arbor, MI (1981).
QUINN, F.H., and G. den Hartog. Evaporation synthesis. In IFYGL--The International Field Year for the Great Lakes, E.J. Aubert and T.L. Richards (eds.). Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory, Ann Arbor, MI, 221-245 (1981).
RAO, D.B., and B.C. DOUGHTY. Instability of coastal currents in the Great Lakes. Arch. Met. Geoph. Biokl. 30:145-160 (1981).
Synoptic surveys indicate mesoscale patchiness or meanders in the temperature structures, calcium carbonate precipitaion patterns or other properties of the Great Lakes. There are usually recognizable horizontal space scales associated with the patchiness or meanders. A two-layer model with linearly sloping bottom was used to examine the possible existence of baroclinically unstable waves corrresponding to observed space scales. It was found that, for values of vertical shear, density ratios, upper and lower layer depths, coastal widths and bottom slope typical for the Great Lakes, baroclinic instability can occur for wavelengths corresponding to the observed space scales. The growth rates of the waves were also found to be large comapred to the time scales of persistence of the coastal currents, suggesting that baroclinic instability may play a role in producing the observer patchiness or meanders.
RAO, D.B., and D.J. SCHWAB. A method of objective analysis for currents in a lake with application to Lake Ontario. Journal of Physical Oceanography 11(5):739-750 (1981). http://www.glerl.noaa.gov/pubs/fulltext/1981/19810002.pdf
The mean circulation in large lakes is nearly nondivergent in character. This paper takes advantage of this fact to represent the flow field in terms of the transport streamfunction. The horizontal velocity vector (v) and the vertical componenet of vorticity are then given by v = k x H-1-y and z = - × H-1-y, where y is the transport streamfunction, - the horizontal gradient, and H = H(x,y) the equilibrium depth of the lake. If the vorticity field z(x,y) is known, y can be dtermined from the above inhomogeneous equation with H-1y = 0 on the boundary. The current vector is then obtained from the other equation. In proactice, however, currents are measured and not vorticity. Therefore, the proposed objective analysis procedure expands the transport streamfunction in terms of the eigenvectors of the self-adjoint problem - × H-1-ya = maya with H-1ya = 0 on the boundary. The eigenvalues ma and eigenvectors ya are characteristic of the particular lake and are determined numerically by a Lanczos procedure. The expansion coefficients are determined by minimizing the squared error between the calculated v field and available current meter data. Since the ya functions for the entire domain of the basin are known, the currents can be reconstructed at any point. This method has been applied to data gathered in Lake Ontario during the winter months of 1972-73 as part of the International Field Year for the Great Lakes (IFYGL).
Richards, T.L., and E.J. AUBERT. The International Field Year for the Great Lakes--An introduction. In IFYGL--The International Field Year for the Great Lakes, E.J. Aubert and T.L. Richards (eds.). Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory, Ann Arbor, MI, 1-14 (1981).
ROBERTSON, A., and J.E. Gannon. Annotated checklist of the free-living copepods of the Great Lakes. Journal of Great Lakes Research 7(4):382-393 (1981). http://www.glerl.noaa.gov/pubs/fulltext/1981/19810006.pdf
An annotated checklist of the free-living copepods of the Laurentian Great Lakes is developed on the basis of published records. Synonymies are included for each species, relating, wherever possible, invalid names in the literature with currently recognized taxonomy. Twelve species of calanoids, six species of planktonic cyclopoids, nine species of benthic/littoral cyclopoids, and fourteen species of harpacticoids have been reported from the Great Lakes. Ten of the calanoids and four of the cyclopoids are characteristic of limnetic waters. Three calanoids and two planktonic cyclopoids have been reported infrequently and are perhaps accidental occurrences. The composition of the planktonic copepod fauna in most subregions of the Great Lakes is well-known. In contrast, the sampling of benthic/littoral cyclopoids and harpacticoids has been so infrequent that their kinds, areas of occurrence, and relative abundances are still poorly understood.
SAYLOR, J.H. Rotational waves in the Great Lakes and their significance in large-scale mixing processes. Ocean Management 6:236 (1981).
Recent observational studies of horizontal currents near the centers of several deep basins within the Great Lakes have revealed persistent oscillations of a few days in period dominating both the low-frequency end of kinetic energy spectra and low-pass-filtered current hodographs. The waves are barotropic and are present during both density stratified and unstratified seasons. Their signals are also present in coastal waters surrounding the basins, but the offshore properties of the waves clearly distinguish them as being separate from coastally-trapped shelf waves. The oscillations are identified as the classic second-class motions of a shallow liquid (rotational waves) first described by Lamb in his treatise on hydrodynamics. They are similar to Rossby waves expect that the necessary gradient of potential vorticity is provided by the basins and anticyclonically nearer shore. As the closed circulation cells of the waves propagate in a cyclonic direction about the basins, evidence of the passage of regions of divergence and convergence in the flow field is found in associated thermocline upwellings and downwellings along the coasts during stratification. These observations reveal for the first time in the Great Lakes waves of this class controlling the low-frequency current responses in an interior basin. The orbital velocities can become quite large when meteorological forcing occurs in near resonance with the rotational waves and they are important factors intensifying large-scale mixing processes within the lake basins.
SAYLOR, J.H., J.R. BENNETT, F.M. Boyce, P.C. LIU, C.R. Murthy, R.L. PICKETT, and T.J. Simmons. Water movements. In IFYGL--The International Field Year for the Great Lakes, E.J. Aubert and T.L. Richards (eds.). Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory, Ann Arbor, MI, 247-324 (1981).
SAYLOR, J.H., J.C.K. HUANG, and R.O. Reid. Vortex modes in southern Lake Michigan. Journal of Physical Oceanography 10(11):1814-1823 (1980). http://www.glerl.noaa.gov/pubs/fulltext/1980/19800004.pdf
Current velocities and water temperatures were observed in southern Lake Michigan with an array of AMF vector-averaging current meters during late spring, summer and fall 1976. Analyses of the recorded current data have revealed that persistent oscillations of nearly 4 days in period were at least as energetic as inertial oscillations in the kinetic energy spectra and current hodographs. The 4-day oscillations were present at all stations, including a very clear signal at stations near the center of the lake basin. This lake-wide oscillation was present during both stratified and unstratified seasons and current vectors rotated cyclonically near the center of the lake and anticyclonically elsewhere. The observed rotational oscillations closely fit the characteristics of barotropic second-class motions of a basin with variable depth first described by Lamb (1932). While such topographic vortex modes are of the same class as low-frequency shelf waves, their kinematic properties and natural period are governed by the lake shape as well as the bathymetry. Moreover, the gravest mode is unique among these waves in having nonzero velocity at the lake center. The present observations give clear evidence for the existence of the gravest mode of such oscillations in southern Lake Michigan.
SCAVIA, D. Conceptual model of phosphorus cycling. In Nutrient Cycling in the Great Lakes: A Summarization of Factors Regulating the Cycling of Phosphorus, D. Scavia and R.A. Moll (eds.). Great Lakes Research Division, the University of Michigan, Special Report No. 83, Ann Arbor, MI, 119-140 (1980).
SCAVIA, D., R.P. Canale, W.F. Powers, and J.F. Moody. Variance estimates for a dynamic eutrophication model of Saginaw Bay, Lake Huron. Water Resources Research 17(4):1115-1124 (1981).
First-order variance propagation is used to estimate variance of model output originating from variances of uncertain initial conditions, parameter values, and external load estimates for a nutrient-phytoplankton-zooplankton dynamic eutrophication model of one segment of Saginaw Bay, Lake Huron. Coefficients of variation of model output during summer are not unlike those estimated from measurements. The major source of variance propagation, are identified by analysis of the predicted correlation matrix. Methods for reducing model output variance are suggested.
SCAVIA, D., and R.A. Moll. Nutrient cycling in the Great Lakes: A summarization of factors regulating the cycling of phosphorus. Special Report No. 83. Great Lakes Research Division, the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, 140 pp. (1980). http://www.glerl.noaa.gov/pubs/fulltext/1980/19800011.pdf
SCAVIA, D., W.F. Powers, R.P. Canale, and J.F. Moody. Comparison of first-order error analysis and Monte Carlo simulation in time- dependent lake eutrophication models. Water Resources Research 17(4):1051-1059 (1981).
Estimates of variance for a nonlinear, seasonal food chain, nutrient cycle eutrophication model of Saginaw Bay, Lake Huron, calculated by first-order variance propagation and Monte Carlo analyses, do not always agree. A comparison of estimates of state variables indicates that Monte Carlo means are most like the measurements, whereas Monte Carlo medians are most like the deterministic model output. Best agreement between Monte Carlo and first-order estimates of both state variable values and their variances occurs when Monte Carlo output distributions are symmetric. Under these conditions, both estimates are measures of variance associated with total populations (i.e., all algae). Those distributions, however, change dramatically in time for most state variables. For asymmetric distributions, first-order variance estimates measure variability about the typical component of the total population (i.e., the typical algal species) and Monte Carlo variance estimates measure variability of the mean component (which is more reflective of the total). One must be cognizant of these differences when estimating variance associated with model projections.
**SCHWAB, D.J. Determination of wind stress from water level fluctuations. Ph.D. dissertation, The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, University Microfilms, (1981).
An inverse method for determining wind stress from water level fluctuations is tested in several ideal cases and is applied to observations of Lake Erie water levels and over-water wind to compute over-water drag coefficients. The method is based on the linearized, vertically-integrated shallow water equations with rotation and friction terms. It is shown that the free surface fluctuation can be expressed as the convolution integral of time and space dependent wind stress with a response function kernel. An explicit form for the response function in terms of the normal modes of the system is given. If wind stress is taken as the unknown and water level fluctuation as a prescribed quantity, the integral equation relating them does not have a unique solution. However, it is shown that, with some reasonable assumptions about the spatial variability of the wind stress field, a unique solution for wind stress in terms of water level fluctuations can be obtained. The method is applied to hourly observations of Lake Erie water levels from 12 stations around the lake for the period May to October, 1979. The calculated hourly wind stress directions agree with wind directions observed from buoys on the lake for wind speeds greater than 7.5 m s-1. The agreement improves as wind speed increases. Calculated wind stress magnitudes are used with observed wind speeds to determine over-water drag coefficients as a function of wind speed and atmospheric stability. The average calculated drag coefficients for 2.5 m s-1 wind speed classes at wind speeds greater than 7.5 m s-1 increase with wind speed and decrease with atmospheric stability. the average 4 m drag coefficient for neutral conditions and wind speeds greater than 7.5 m s-1 is 1.81 x 10-3.
SCHWAB, D.J., R.A. Shuchman, and P.C. LIU. Wind wave directions determined from synthetic aperture radar imagery and from a tower in Lake Michigan. Journal of Geophysical Research 86(C3):2059-2064 (1981).
Directional wave spectra calculated from digitized synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images of waves on Lake Michigan are compared to a wave directional spectrum determined from measurements taken at a tower and to a one-dimensional spectrum determined from a Waverider buoy. The comparison is within one frequency band for peak energy frequency and within 20o for direction, but the SAR image intensity spectrum does not have the same shape as a wave height spectrum. Wave refraction directions observed in the SAR spectra are within 10o of classical wave refraction calculations.
SONZOGNI, W.C. The slow painting of a 'big picture'. Great Lakes Basin Commission Communicator 11(11):3 (1981).
SONZOGNI, W.C., S.C. CHAPRA, D.E. Armstrong, and T.J. Logan. Bioavailability of phosphorus inputs to lakes: Significance to management. Great Lakes Basin Commission Great Lakes Environmental Planning Study (GLEPS) Report #40, Ann Arbor, MI, 30 pp. (1981).
An important consideration in determining the cost-effectiveness of phosphorus (P) control strategies for lakes is bioavailability - i.e., the portion of the total P input capable of stimulating biological growth. this paper provides a perspective on the availability question by (1) summarizing and interpreting methods of measuring bioavailable P, (2) assessing the general bioavailability of different P sources, (3) exploring how lakes may respond to bioavailable P inputs using a mathematical model and by (4) considering the effect of bioavailability on P management strategies. it is concluded that an upper limit to bioavailable P (defined as the amount of inorganic P a P-deficient algal population can utilize over a period of 48 hours or longer) corresponds to the dissolved reactive P (DRP) plus the fraction of the particulate inorganic P obtained by extraction with 0.1N NaOH. Based on existing information (mostly from Great Lakes Basin studies), potentially bioavailable inorganic P in tributaries generally does not exceed 60 percent of the total P and is often considerably less. On the other hand, the total P in treated sewage effluent appears largely bioavailable. However, whether the potentially available particulate inorganic P portion of the bioavailable P pool actually becomes bioavailable in a receiving waters depends on factors such as the receiving water DRP concentration and the position (including residence time) of the particle in the water. A mathematical model, combining two classical modeling approaches, is used to illustrate the importance of positional limits to bioavailability. Finally, from a management perspective, current information suggests that the costs of controlling P inputs from land runoff is sharply increased per unit of P reduction if bioavailable P rather than total P is considered.
SONZOGNI, W.C., W.S. Richardson, P. Rogers, and T.J. Monteith. Chloride budget for the Great Lakes: A current assessment. Great Lakes Basin Commision Great Lakes Environmental Planning Study (GLEPS) Report #39, Ann Arbor, MI, 42 pp. (1981).
Trace toxic contaminants will be the major research focus in the years ahead, since our inland seas appear to be especially sensitive to contaminants. During the 1970s, however, attention centered on pollution from municipal sewage treatment plants. By year 2000 controls are predicted to reduce phosphorus inputs to the Great Lakes from municipal sources by more than half current levels. Although this reduction will likely result in an overall improvement in water quality, it may also result in small reductions in fish yields. During the 1980s and 1990s it will be important to evaluate the effects of phosphorus pollution control programs have been cost-effective. Finally, because of water shortages around the world, water quantity will emerge as a major Great Lakes issue.
SONZOGNI, W.C., A. ROBERTSON, and A.M. Beeton. The importance of ecological factors in Great Lakes management. Great Lakes Basin Commision Great Lakes Environmental Planning Study (GLEPS) Report #52, Ann Arbor, MI, 28 pp. (1981).
Although attempts to improve the quality of the Great Lakes generally focus on chemical pollution, other factors are important and should be considered. Ecologic factors, such as invasion of the lakes by foreign species, habitat changes, overfishing and stochastic variations in organism populations, are especially influential. For example, contrary to popular belief the dieoffs of alewies that have occurred along Great Lakes coasts appear to be more related to species overabundance than to pollution. Similarly, the fantastic resurgence of the walleye sport fishery in Lake Erie is attributed more to regulated harvesting than to the continuing abatement of Lake Erie pollution. Importantly, our emphasis on ecological factors is not intended to diminish the seriousness of pollution, but rather to point out that more cost-effective management, as well as more realistic expectations by the public of management efforts, should result from and ecosystem management approach in which ecological factors are carefully considered. Lack of appreciation of the significance of ecological factors partly stems form the inappropriate application of the concept of eutrophication to the Great Lakes. Nutrient pollution is blamed for many of the changes observed in the lakes, but these changes are often more related to ecological factors. Attention to ecological factors will be especially important in the future as closer scrutiny is given to coasts, benefits, and probabilities for success of environmental improvements. Further, certain ecological changes which may occur in the future, such as a possible collapse of the alewife population or the continued spread of the pink salmon, have major management implications. In this regard, more quantitative information on management. Finally, the unprecedented Great Lakes pollution abatement program implemented over the last ten years provides a unique opportunity to study the response of the lakes to decreased pollutant inputs. Variations from expected responses should provide further insight on the relative importance of ecological factors, and lead to more cost-effective lake management.
SONZOGNI, W.C., and M.S. Simmons. Notes on Great Lakes trace metal and toxic organic contaminants. GLERL Open File Report, Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory, Ann Arbor, MI (1981).
While a relatively large amount of toxic contaminant data have been collected on the Great Lakes, few efforts have been made to interpret this information, especially from a holistic or system-wide perspective. Consequently, using a compilation of toxics data issued by the International Joint Commission as a primary source of information, general characteristics of the toxics data base were sought. Data from Lakes Michigan and Erie were given the most attention. Overall, reported concentrations of both trace metals and organic pollutants were highly variable. Typical concentrations of many contaminants ranged over an order of magnitude. Aside form PCBs and DDT, very little data exist on organic contaminants such as dieldrin, endrin, chlordane, toxaphene and phthalates. No clear differences in contaminant concentrations between lakes were noted, possibly because of the wide range in reported concentration. Typical concentrations of contaminants in Great Lakes waters were at or below the part per billion level. Inorganic contaminants were generally found in water in greater quantities than organic contaminants were generally found in water in greater quantities than organic contaminants. In the sediment, organic contaminant concentrations were typically below the part per million level, while some metals (e.g., zinc) were found at concentrations in excess of several hundred parts per million. Highest sediment contaminant concentrations were found in the deeper, despositional basins of the lakes. Certain organic contaminants such as PCBs, dieldrin and DDT were concentrated in fish tissue. Zinc was also reported in fish in high concentrations. There is some indication that PCB levels in Lake Michigan fish are decreasing in a fashion similar to the decrease observed for DDT. Generally, however, temporal trends in the data were not obvious. For most contaminants the objectives set in the 1978 Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement are being met. Exceptions include cadmium and copper concentrations in water, where the upper end of the range of concentrations reported exceed the objectives. In fish, levels of mercury, PCBs and DDT exceed their objectives in the upper port of their reported range.
SONZOGNI, W.C., and W.R. Swain. Perspectives on U.S. Great Lakes chemical toxic substances research. Journal of Great Lakes Research 6(4):265-274 (1980). http://www.glerl.noaa.gov/pubs/fulltext/1980/19800009.pdf
Because of their magnitude, their geographic and demographic characteristics, and their unique limnological properties, the Great Lakes appear to be especially susceptible to chemical contamination. The scientific basis for dealing with this contamination is very limited compared with the magnitude of the problem. This is particularly evident when the vast array of toxic xenobiotic substances of anthropogenic origin are considered. Major knowledge gaps exist on the critical transport pathways, ultimate fate, and ecological effects of toxic substances (of urgent importance are health effects on humans residing in the basin), as well as on the economic and social aspects of toxics management. The economic climate of the 1980s, however, is likely to severely limit the resources available for the conduct of research which is so badly needed. Consequently, it appears that the Great Lakes research community will have imposed upon it a markedly increased demand for information and a concomitant reduction in the resources available to accomplish the task. Finally, despite a pessimistic outlook for research support, there is optimism that the great Lakes will respond positively, and in a relatively short time span (years as opposed to centuries), to the abatement of toxic inputs. Nevertheless, additional information on the processes affecting the distribution and fate of toxic substances is still critical to the understanding required to ensure effective remedial actions.
Sullivan, R.A.C., M. Baise, and W.C. SONZOGNI. Environmental quality maps for the U.S. Great Lakes Basin. Great Lakes Basin Commision Great Lakes Environmental Planning Study (GLEPS) Report #41, Ann Arbor, MI, 96 pp. (1981).
Sullivan, R.A.C., T.M. Heidtke, J.R. Hall, and W.C. SONZOGNI. Potential impact of changes in Great Lakes water quality on fisheries. Great Lakes Basin Commision Great Lakes Environmental Planning Study (GLEPS) Report #26, Ann Arbor, MI, 52 pp. (1981).
TARAPCHAK, S.J. Measurements of phosphate-phosphorus in lake water. In Nutrient cycling in the Great Lakes: A summarization of Factors Regulating the Cycling of Phosphorus, D. Scavia and R.A. Moll (eds.). Great Lakes Research Division, The University of Michigan, Special Report No. 83, Ann Arbor, MI, 1-11 (1980).
TARAPCHAK, S.J., D.R. SLAVENS, and L.M. MALONEY. Abiotic versus biotic uptake of radiophosphorus in lake water. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 38(8):889-895 (1981).
Tests were conducted on Selenastrum capricornutum and lake water to evaluate the common practice of estimating abiotic uptake of radiophosphorus (33Pi) by poisoning samples with glutaraldehyde (GA) and Formalin (FM) and to estimate abiotic uptake in Lake Michigan water. Algae treated with GA and FM release intracellular 31Pi into solution, which elevates the dissolved 31Pi:33Pi ratio and could seriously underestimate abiotic uptake. Carbonylcyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CP), an inhibitor of phosphorylation, was identified as a satisfactory agent for estimating abiotic uptake because it effectively inhibits biological uptake, it does not cause the release of detectable amounts of 31Pi from algae into solution, and it does not appear to block significantly abiotic uptake by particulate material in lake water. Two types of tests demonstrated that nonbiological uptake of 33Pi in water from Lake Michigan was negligible: uptake in samples treated with 10-3 mol/L CP was </=0.01%, and uptake by particulate material recovered from lake water after treatment with heat or GA and resuspension in filtered lake water was </=2% of rates measured in untreated samples. Procedures for estimating abiotic uptake in 33Pi tracer experiments are proposed.
Thomann, R.V., D. SCAVIA, D.M. Di Toro, and A. ROBERTSON. Ecosystem and water quality modeling. In IFYGL--The International Field Year for the Great Lakes, E.J. Aubert and T.L. Richards (eds.). Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory, Ann Arbor, MI, 353-366 (1981).
Tisue, G.T., D.J. Fingleton, J.A. ROBBINS, R. Allison, and S. Barr. Air quality changes over Lake Michigan: 1973-74 compared with 1978-79. Argonne National Laboratory Report ANL-80-225, Pt. III, Argonne, IL, 39-45 pp. (1981).
VANDERPLOEG, H.A. Effect of the algal length/aperture length ratio on Coulter analysis of lake seston. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 38(8):912-916 (1981).
The dynamics of 65zn specific activity and total zinc in benthic fishes on the outer continental shelf off central Oregon (USA) were examined. A differential equation that relates specific activity of 65zn in fish to that in fish food was used to estimate a's (zinc uptake-rate coefficients) for 3 different size classes of the flounder Lyopsetta exilis, a small predator of pelagic Crustacea, and for 1 size class of the flounder Microstromus pacificus, a large predator of infauna. The a's obtained for L. exilis were very close to the a obtained in the laboratory for the flounder Pleuronectes platessa. The a estimated for m. pacificus was very much smaller than the a's estimated for the other two species. A model that related a to predicted weight-specific feeding rates suggested that the smaller a of M. pacificus was caused by a low absorption efficiency of zinc from its prey. Sensitivity studies indicated that time histories of specific activity in the fishes are not sensitive to moderate changes in a. The negative correlation between specific activity in the diet and in the weight of L. exilis was the major cause of the negative correlative between specific activity and weight in this species. In M. pacificus, where composition of diet does not vary with size, specific activity was independent of weight. The time history of specific activity in M. pacificus was very much lower than those in the different size classes of L. exilis, a result caused mainly by the much lower specific activity of the prey of M. pacificus. Differences in specific activity among other benthic fishes were also correlated with differences in specific activity of their prey. The food-web dynamics responsible for these patterns are discussed. Variation in total zinc concentrations among species was small. Within species of flounder, zinc concentration varied only slightly or not at all with weight.
VANDERPLOEG, H.A. Seasonal particle-size selection by Diaptomus sicilis in offshore Lake Michigan. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 38(5):504-517 (1981).
Diaptomus sicilis feeding on offshore Lake Michigan seston exhibited a relatively invariant pattern of particle-size selection in 23 separate feeding experiments conducted from spring through fall over a 2-yr period. This pattern persisted for different feeding rates under varying conditions of particle-size spectrum shape, abundance and food quality of particles, and temperature. Selection was quantified by calculating W' (filtering efficiency) as a function of particle size (equivalent spherical diameter). In all but one of the few experiments yielding a W' curve that varied appreciably from the other W' curves, serious bias from grazer-produced particles was evident and/or elongated particles dominated the seston. The elongated particles could have led to deviations because of differences in filtering efficiency between round and elongated particles of small volume and because elongated particles of large volume have to be captured raptorially. It is argued that the more variable patterns of particle-size selection observed in many of the other studies of zooplankton feeding on natural seston result from: (1) improper methods of quantifying selection, (2) serious bias from grazer-produced particles, and (3) varying particle shape, which is not usually specified. The mechanisms of particle selection by Diaptomus and other species that filter like Diaptomus are reviewed, and it is noted that invariant selection is not inconsistent with both filtering and raptorial modes of feeding operating simultaneously. All the evidence points to a strong passive-mechanical filtering mode of feeding that may be supplemented by a raptorial mode of feeding that selects large particles of high food quality.
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